UGC NTA NET Exam | Steps or Process of Research | Unit-2nd | Part-5th |

 UGC NTA NET Exam | Steps or Process of Research | Unit-2nd | Part-5th |

A research involves a systematic process that focuses on being objective and gathering a multitude of information for analysis, so that the researcher can come to a conclusion.

1. Formulating Research problem
2.Reviewibg the research structure
3. Conducting the literature review
4. Developing the Hypothesis
5. Preparation of Research design
6. Collection of data
7. Execution of Project
8. Analysis and interpretation of Data
9. Concluding the data and formal write-up of the research report

A research follows the following steps

1. Formulating Research problem

  • The first step in the formulation of research is to make a research problem concrete and explicit.
  • There is no full proof method to be followed by the researcher in formulating significant questions about any research area in mind. but, there are certain working conditions which would help the researcher in formulating problem.
  • Generally, these steps are used to formulate a research problem.
Step 1. Selection of a research area: 

Formulation of research problem begins with selection of a broad research topic from personal experience, literature, previous research and theories in which researcher is interested.

Step 2. Dissect the research area into sub-area:
The subject area chosen by the researcher may be broad in that case researcher needs to dissect it into small areas or topic.

For example, researcher choose 'childhood nutrition' topic. it is a broad subject ares and researcher need to dissect it more. he can dissect it into childhood development series, malnutrition in children, child immunisation, childhood diseases, childhood mortality and childhood vaccines. There can be many other categories and you can select a category or sub-area among all of them.

Step 3. Focus on the selecting an area of interest

In this step, researcher may choose one or two areas of his interest. rest sub-areas (divided in step 2) can be avoided by the researcher if he did not have any interest in those area.

Step 4. Generate research questions

Generate as many research questions as possible on the selected area or topic. research questions should be formulated in such a way that they can be answered using scientific techniques and research procedures.

Step 5. Decide about the objectives

objectives are the possible answers to the research question or the research problem that researcher have formulated. objectives make you specific, as you conduct your study around the objectives that you have decided. the objectives need to be specific in nature but you can also generate general objectives.

Step 6. Formulating final statement of research problem

After establishing the significance, research ability and feasibility, then the researcher finally formulates a final statement of a research problem. A research problem could be in declarative or interrogative format.

2. Reviewing the research structure:

  • Once the task of formulating the research problem is over, the researcher must review the research structure.
  • This step provides foundational knowledge about the problem area.
  • The review of structure, also educates the researcher about what studies have been conducted in the past, how these studies were conducted and the conclusions in the problem area.
  • The information discovered during this steps helps the researcher fully understand the magnitude of the problem.
3. Conducting the Literature Review:
Literature review is usually the longest stage in the research process. Actually, the literature review starts  even before the formulation of research aims and objective, because you have to check if exactly the same research problem has been addressed before.

Nevertheless, the main part of the literature review is conducted after the formulation of research aims and objectives. you have to use a wide range of secondary data sources such as books, newspaper, magazines, journals, online articles etc.

4. Developing the Hypothesis

  • In this step, the researcher develops hypothesis on the topic of research. 
  • Hypothesis should be free from any biasness. this is because, the researcher determines the scope, depth and overall direction of the research.

5. Preparation of Research design

  • According to Russel Ackoff, "Research design is the process of making decisions before a situation arises in which the decision is to be carried out".
  • In this step, the researcher prepares the conceptual  framework within which the research would be carried out.
  • A flexible research design is more appropriate for preparing of research design, as it provides ample scope for researching various aspects of a problem.
  • Following are the significant aspects which must be kept in mind while preparing a research design
  1. Means of obtaining the information
  2. Tools of data collection
  3. Objectives of the research study
  4. Data analysis (Qualitative and Quantitative)
  5. Time available for each stage of the research
  6. Cost involved for the research
  • A well-planned research design serves as a blueprint for the researcher even before actually starting the research.
  • This step helps researcher to decide the course of action during various stages of the research, which saves time and resources of the researcher.
  • Research design achieves the following purpose of the researcher
  1. It makes research efficient
  2. It optimise the utilisation of researches.
  3. It makes reliability and flexibility.

6. Collection of data

  • In this step, the researcher collects data from all relevant sources to find answers to the research problem, test the hypothesis and evaluate the outcomes.
  • There are two way of data collection such as primary and secondary method
  • Primary data can be collected by personal interviews, field work, calculations, observations etc.
  • Secondary data can be collected from books, newspapers, magazines, journal and online portals etc.

7. Execution of Project

  • After preparation of research design and collecting all the data the actual work of research is executed.
  • In this step, the researcher plans the ways to analyse the data and arrive at a conclusion.
8. Analysis and interpretation of Data

  • In this step, the researcher analyses the data to identify common patterns within the responses and critically examines them to achieve aims and objectives.
9. Concluding the data and formal write-up of the research report

  • This is the final step of research. on the basis of data interpretation some generalisation may arise.
  • The generalisation made in this step should not be based on personal opinion rather, it should flow from the analysis based on data.
  • The strength of the outcome of research lies in indicating how one can safely draw the conclusions and not force them as one would expect.
  • The validity of the research outcome depends on how accurately the findings of data have been incorporated in the conclusion.

Format of Report

1. Primary Material

1. Title of report
2. Table of content
3. Abstract/synopsis

2. Main Part

4. Introduction
5. Literature review
6. Methodology
7. Results
8. Discussion
9. Conclusions
10. Recommendations

3. Complement Material

11. Bibliography
12. Appendices

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