UGC NTA NET 2021 | Evaluation System | Part-10 |

 UGC NTA NET 2021 | Evaluation System | Part-10 |


Evaluation is the wider term and plays a very important role in teaching learning process. Evaluation means to determine the growth and changes, taking place in pupils as a result of teaching learning experiences.

Evaluation can be described as the systematic approach for collecting, providing and utilising information about an educational course or program to determine the nature, quality and efficiency of the teaching and learning in that course or program.

In its wider sense evaluation is the continuous inspection of all available information concerning the student, teacher, educational programme and the teaching-learning process to ascertain the degree of change in students and form valid judgement about the students.

According to Gronlund and Linn "Evaluation is a systematic process of collecting, analysing and interpreting information to determine the extent to which pupils are achieving instructional objectives".

According to CE Beeby "Evaluation is the systematic collection and interpretation of evidence leading as a part of process to a judgement of value with a view to action.

Objective of Evaluation

  • To help in diagnosing weaknesses of students.
  • To help in predicting future achievement
  • To test the development of skills and attitudes of students.
  • To familiarise the teacher with nature of pupil learning development and progress.
  • To serve as a means of improving school-community relation.

Steps of Evaluation Process

  • Purpose-For what the evaluation is being conducted.
  • Audience-The audience will determine the type of information collected and reported.
  • Resources- what resources will be needed to conduct the evaluation.
  • Evidence-what type of data or information will be needed to answer the evaluation questions.
  • Data-Gathering Techniques- multiple techniques are used to increase the validity of the result.
  • Analysis- different interpretations are used to analyse the outcome of evaluation.
  • Reporting- an evaluation report is distributed to the identified audience.
Importance of Evaluation- Evaluation is important in education due to following reasons
  • Ensuring Learning Takes Place- assessment should provide information about the level of understating that students are teaching upto. frequent feedback to learners is required so that learners monitor their learning and actively evaluate their strategies and their current levels of understanding.
  • Ensuring Teacher Effectiveness- Teaching can be effective if teachers start by setting learning objectives, instead of about what the teacher will do. teachers must asses their students based on these primary learning objectives rather than on arbitrary standards.
  • for Creating a Quality Learning Environment- A quality learning environment is 
  1. Learner-Centered- It pays attention to the knowledge, skills, attitudes and beliefs that learners bring to the educational setting.
  2. Knowledge-Centered- It takes seriously the need to help students become knowledgeable by learning in ways that lead to understanding.
  3. Assessment Centered- It provides opportunities for feedback and revision, and also about the fact that the assessment matches the student's learning goal.
  4. Community-Centered- This refers to several aspects of the community, including the classroom as community, the school as a community, and the degree to which students, teachers and administrators feel connected to the large community of homes, business, states, the nation and even the world.

Techniques of evaluation 

evaluation technique is not the end of teaching-learning process, although it is a valid theory that change the thinking and understanding behaviour of the students. thus, a standard evaluation indicates the qualitative change in the behaviour of the students.
The evaluation techniques are divided into two i.e. qualitative and quantitative techniques.

1. Quantitative Techniques: it can be categorised into three elements
  1. Written Examination:- this technique or method is also known as paper-pencil test. it is one of the popular technique of evaluation in these days.
  2. Oral Examination:- This technique is supplementary to the written examination. test of reading ability and pronunciation is the example of oral examination
  3. Practical:- this technique is used for testing the experimental activities of the students as well as manipulative skills of students. it is done in subjects like science, agricultural craft, music and technology.
2. Qualitative Techniques: it is focused on understanding how students make meaning of and experienced their environment or world. these techniques can be categorised into following
  1. Interview: It comprises a number of open-ended, questions that results in responses that yield information. it is common to engage in face-to-face verbal interviews with one individual or with a group of students. it is because of the fact that students are usually more willing to talk than write.
  2. Observation: it does not require direct contact with the students, rather this type of data collection involves a teacher providing information-rich descriptions of behaviour, conversations, interactions of the students for outcomes of the students behaviour.
  3. Checklist: it does not only give the observer a set of criteria to observe, but it allows the observer to show student progress over time and to correlate a number with a qualitative process.
  4. Rating Scale: it is used for applying the expression of opinion or judgement regarding some situation, object, or character.
  5. Cumulative Records: it is used for knowing the details about student's behaviour. cumulative records include anecdotal records, cumulative record cards, and diaries of students.
Assessment Evaluation
Assessment is the process of objectively understanding the state or condition of a thing by observation and measurement. Thus, assessment of teaching means measurement of its effectiveness Evaluation is the process of observing and measuring a thing for the purpose of judging it and of determining its value, either by comparison to similar things, or to a standard. Evaluation of teaching means passing judgement on the teaching as part of an administrative process.

Types of Evaluation                                                                                       

1. Formative Evaluation:  It includes any form of classroom interaction that generates information on student learning, which is then used by faculty (teacher) and students to fine-tune their teaching and learning strategies, respectively, during the teaching-learning process. Michael Scriven coined the team formative evaluation in 1967, but, in 1968, Benjamin Bloom popularised the term through his book "Learning for Mastery" and considered it as a tool for improving the teaching-learning process for students. It can be rated on scales that produce a qualitative rather than a quantitative description of teaching and generally utilised a three-to-five point scale. These scales are called quality scale by Barr (1980) and required rater judgement with regard to the presence or absence of traits or the degree to which they were present.

Purpose Of Formative Evaluation: 

  • To provide feedback for teachers to modify subsequent learning activities and experiences.
  • To identify and remediate group or individual deficiencies.
  • To move focus away from achieving grades and onto learning processes, in order to increase self-efficacy and reduce the negative impact of extrinsic motivation.
  • To improve students metacognitive awareness of how they learn.
  • To provide immediate feedback to both student and teacher regarding the success and failures.
  • To provide information to the teacher for modifying instruction and use this instruction for improving learning and instruction.
  • Frequent ongoing assessment allows both for fine-tuning of instruction and student focus on progress.
  • It encourages teacher and peer dialogue around learning, and also encourage positive motivational beliefs and self-esteem.
  • It provide opportunities to close the gap between current and desired performance.    
  • 2. Summative Evaluation: summative evaluation refers to the assessment of participants where the focus is on the outcome of a program. this contrasts with formative assessment, which summarises the participants development at a particular time. it is also coined by Michael Scriven in 1967. Questionnaires, surveys, interviews, observations, testing, projects (a culminating project that synthesises knowledge) are the most common methods of summative assessment which aim to summarise overall learning at the completion of the course or unit.
  • Summative assessment usually takes place after students have completed units of work or modules at the end of each term and/or year. The information it gives indicates progress and achievement usually in grade-related or numerical terms. it's the more formal summing-up of a student's progress. this information can then be provided to parents or used for certification as part of a formal examination course. Therefore, summative assessment gives pupils, parents and performance at a specific point in their learning. it provides information about their progress in; subject knowledge, understanding, skills and capabilities.
  • 3. Diagnostic Evaluation: It is concerned with finding out the reasons for student's persistent or recurring learning difficulties that cannot be resolved by standard corrective measures or formative evaluation. The aim of diagnostic evaluation is to find out the causes of learning problems and plan to take remedial actions. observational techniques or specially prepared diagnostic techniques can be used to diagnose the problem. It determines the level of competence of the students.
  • Diagnostic evaluation includes;pretest results, an evaluation of your child's reading strengths and reading needs, an instructional plan, a description of the tutoring that was conducted, post-test results, a summary of outcomes and recommendations for future instruction.

Significance of Evaluation

  • Evaluation aids in devising more effective instructional materials and procedure of instruction.
  • Evaluation is important to the classroom teachers, supervisors, and administrators in directing as well as guiding teaching and learning.
  • Evaluation helps to measure the validity and reliability of instruction.
  • Evaluation helps teachers to discover the needs of the learner.
  • Evaluation helps to provide objective evidence for effective cooperation between parents and teachers.
  • Evaluation can be used to enforce external standards upon the individual class or school.
  • Evaluation helps parents to understand learners growth, interest and potentials.
Elements of Evaluation

An effective evaluation system includes the following research-based essential elements.these are as follows

  • Research-based and proven performance targets: To ensure that student performance continually improves through the work of excellent teachers and leaders, an evaluation system must use measurement of clearly articulated, research-based and proven performance targets.
  • Include Evidence of teaching and student learning from multiple sources:  In most of the institutions it is seen that end-of-year tests are used commonly to measure students learning which provide teachers with too little information too late and may not reflect the full breadth and depth of instruction. Researchers have found that combining a range of measures yield the greatest reliability and predictive power of a teachers gains with students.
  • use information to provide constructive feedback to teachers: The aim of evaluation should be to improve teacher practice. for this, timely feedback is important which should be provided formally, informally or both. it is provided using multiple sources of evidence from a variety of different measures, including observations focused on professional practice and the extent of student learning, analysis of the improvement of student performance, analysis of artifacts including lesson plans, professional development plans, supplemental resources, participation-in coursework, improvement plans and so on.
  • standardised and periodic training for evaluators: Evaluators who collect the measures of evidence and provide feedback must be highly trained to ensure that rating are fair, accurate and reliable. Thus provide training to evaluators is important which should be based on conducting effective classroom observations and walk-through focused on the quality of instruction, assessing student data, interpreting survey information, effectively providing clear, constructive, timely and meaningful feedback and so on.
  • use of evaluation results: rating of educator's effectiveness guide the institution's decision regarding determinations, recognition,development, interventions and policies that impact the extent of student learning. highly effective educators use their evaluation results in such ways like, contributing through key leadership role, assisting with the challenges of high need students, assuming other critical additional duties that contribute to a school system's overall success.
Evaluation in Choice Based Credit System in Higher Education (CBCS)

The university grants commission (UGC) has initiated several measures to bring equity, efficiency and excellence in the higher education system of country. majority of Indian higher education institutions have been following marks or percentage based evaluation system, which obstructs the flexibility for the students to study the subjects of their choice and their mobility to different institutions. thus, to remove this situation the UGC introduced CBCS in higher education from the year 2015.

with the help of CBCS students can choose interdisciplinary, intra-disciplinary and skill-based courses including core, elective/minor or skill based courses of their choice. the courses can be evaluated following the uniform grading system, which is considered to be better than the conventional marks system.

CBCS gives emphasis on the continuous and comprehensive evaluation, computation of the cumulative grade point average (CGPA) based on the performance of students in the examinations and semester system.

It gives 40% weightage to the internal assessment and remaining 60% to the final exam. Internal evaluation consists of one test for 20 marks, one assignment for 10 marks: 5 marks for the active participation in the class 5 marks for overall conduct of the learners during class hours.

Advantages of CBCS

  • it can be seen as a major shift from the teacher centre to learner centre education.
  • student may undertake as many credits as they can cope with (without repeating all courses in a given semester if they fail in one/more courses).
  • It permits learners to choose soft courses of different interdisciplinary and intradisciplinary subjects with the core subjects.
  • It also helps to the learners to pursue their courses at different times.
  • it has broadened the base of education system.
  • stress and anxiety of learners can be reduced through it.
  • helpful in ensuring the uniformity in education system in terms of evaluation and assessment.
  • globally acclaimed education system can be maintained through it, as it has the provision of offering different courses at the same time.
Disadvantages of CBCS

  • it is tough to measure or calculate the exact marks.
  • one subject can be repeated three times, it makes the students irresponsible.
  • numbers of courses are imposed in the CBCS, which is an overburden for the student as well as teachers.
  • chance of subjectivity is maximum, as internal evaluation has 40% weightage.
  • research work and innovation get hamper, as most of the time teachers have to be involved in setting papers and making arrangement for the examinations.
Evaluation in Computer based testing (CBT) 

information and communication technology (ICT) has become an essential component in higher education in india for the last decade. thus, evaluation system is shifting from traditional assessment to computer based testing which is considered more authentic and accurate.

The trend to opt this system of evaluation is increasing in the Indian HE system due to several cases of cheating or proxy testing in high-stakes competitive exams in the recent years.

as a result, an increasing no. of HE institutions in India are choosing to invest in CBT instead of paper-and-pencil format to reduce the default methods.

Factor contributing to use CBT

  • Growth in number of internet users: according to recent studies the no. of internet users is increasing day by day in even smaller towns and cities in india. so, most of the students are aware of basic computer.thus, it creates possibilities to include CBT system in education.
  • CBT is user-friendly: CBT are correctly perceived to be fairer, more convenient, reliable and user friendly. Though some tests like the Graduate record examination (GRE) have been computer based since the 1990's, the focus has now shifted from mere standardisation and certification to building a complete delivery model that encompasses preparation, testing and assessment.
  • Elimination of Human Error and Bias: CBT improves the quality and reliability of the test and eliminates the chance of human error or bias in grading answer. besides, it allows large no. of tests and student data to be securely stored and analyzed so that the quality of future tests can be improved.
  • Scheduling Flexibility and Accessibility: Greater flexibility for scheduling and growing numbers of test centers across india has improved accessibility. this accessibility in turn has opened new opportunities for population previously unaccounted for in competitive admissions and job selections.
  • Cost Effectiveness: In earlier times, affordability was the major obstacle in switching to the CBT. but over the time, institutes and employers have realised that paper based exams take longer time for evaluation as compared to CBT. apart from this, there are many cases of cheating, theft and fraud in paper based exams/testing which make the scores obtained in these exams far less reliable as compared to CBT. Computerisation of tests is cost effective for host organisations and provides them the best option to ensure fair scoring across a large number of candidates. hence, we can conclude that CBT provides students fair and accurate scores free from cheating, saves the hard work of honest candidates and removes prejudice from the process. A good testing agency ensures a fair and secure exam pattern and keep the data accurately and securely accessed, stored and transferred.
Innovations in Evaluation Systems

 The evaluation of teaching and learning is important. these is also need to improve our present evaluation system by innovating some new techniques and method. some of these innovative methods are given below
  • Questionnaires: can be used to explore more complex, and more relevant issues such as what students are learning.what aspects are most useful, what could be improved. Thus, questionnaires can be used in evaluation system depending on the purpose, but they may be useful at the beginning and end of an initiative.
  • Student Interviews: are often a valuable means of evaluation. interviews can be done with focus groups of students and can be arranged at appropriate times during the course.
  • Asking students to keep a journal of their experiences and their comments about the initiative can often be useful. journals can be analysed to increase confidence and understanding and can be used to improve the teaching-learning process. thus, journals can be included as part of student assessment.
  • The Socratic Wheel: is a simple & powerful visual rating tool with multiple applications. it can be used to set learning goals on the basis of baseline conditions, monitor progress or evaluate final results using multiple criteria, or compare projects, activities and individual profiles using single criteria

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