UGC NTA NET EXAM | PART-3 | Unit-2nd | Types of Research |

 UGC NTA NET EXAM | PART-3 | Unit-2nd | Types of Research |

Research may be classified into different types for the sake of better understanding of the concept.

1. Objective based Research:  Objective based research is free from biasness. there is truth behind research when outcome is uncovered. from the objective point of view, the research can be classified as:

1. Descriptive Research: Descriptive research, primarily concerned with finding out 'what is' or 'what was'.

it includes surveys and fact finding enquiries of different kinds. the main characteristic of this method is that the researcher has no control over the variables, he can only report what has happened or what is happening. the major purpose of descriptive research is collecting the information without changing the environment.

Descriptive research is interlinked with ex-post facto, historical and analytical research. however, they are used interchangeably also.

Application of descriptive research are discussed below 

1. Ex-Post Facto Research

Ex-post research is systematic empirical inquiry based on a scientific and analytical investigation of dependent and independent variables. the ex-post facto research has a quasi-experimental nature because the subjects of research are not randomly assigned, they are grouped on particular characteristic or trait.

example of Ex-post facto research is as follows

  • A researchers is interested in finding the reasons of the self-esteem levels in adults influenced by weight of the body. the researcher separated the participants into different groups (underweight, normal weight, overweight) and tried to measure their self-esteem levels. 
  • this is an ex-post facto research because a pre-existing characteristics (weight) was used to form the groups.

2. Historical Research: Wiersma defines historical research as a process of critical inquiry info past events, in order to produce an accurate description and interpretation of such events.

It aims to discover the trends in past, in order to understand the present and to anticipate the future. It is advantageous because many socio, economic, and political practices, theories and issues can be understood in the light of past experiences.

Researchers can apply scientific objectivity to determine what did happen in the past.

Some of the example of historical researcher are following
  • To find out solutions for the betterment of tribal community in India.
  • To trace the reasons of violence in west Asia.

3.Analytical Research: The analytical research usually concerns itself with cause-effect relationships. In analytical research, the researcher use facts or information which are already available and analyse these to make a critical evaluation of the material.

In analytical research, the researchers try to test hypothesis and specify their interpretations.

Some of the example of Analytical Research are following
  • To search measures to reduce the no. of complaints made by customers.
  • To search measures to reduce the absence rate among employees of a company.

2. Correlation Research:

Correlation research measures the level of association or relationship between two or more variables. In correlational research, variables must be quantifiable and usually represents at least ordinal scale of measures. 
A consistent relationship between variable is used to predict future events.

Naturally, correlation is of both positive and negative. Positive correlation means that as variable 'A' increases, so does variable 'B'. A Negative correlation is defined as when variable 'A' increases, variable 'B' will decrease.

A correlational study might suggest that there is a relationship between academic success and self-esteem, but it cannot show if academic success actually causes changes in self-esteem

3. Explanatory Research: 

Explanatory research is conducted for those problems which have not been researched before.
The purpose of explanatory research is to explain why certain events occur and to build, elaborate, extend or test theory. Explanatory research allows the researcher to test and verify specific theories and make amendments to those theories.

Some of the examples of explanatory research are as follows:
  • There is a theory that a computer with more RAM has more speed. Explanatory research answers the question that why a computer with more RAM has more speed as compared to computer system with less RAM.
  • Some migratory birds migrates in various regions of the world. Explanatory research answers the questions that why these migratory birds migrate in a specific seasons in some specific regions.
4. Exploratory Research: It is conducted for such problems which have not been clearly defined. it is flexible and can address research questions of all types (what, why, how). This research is often used to generate formal hypothesis.

Use of exploratory research:

1. To define the problem more precisely
2. To identify relevant courses of action
3. To develop Hypothesis
4. To gain additional insights before an approach can be developed
5. To establish priorities for further research
6. To isolate key variables and relationship for further examination.

Example for exploratory research is discussed below
  • Alcoholism (drinking) is a serious issue in India society, but this behaviour is not clearly defined as it has some medical concern also. At the end of research the researcher explored numerous reasons of alcoholism and developed a hypothesis that alcohol is consumed by people for relaxation of body. It is exploratory research because there is still scope open for further research on this problem.

5. Experimental Research:

 Experimental research is a systematic and scientific approach to research, in which the researcher manipulates one or more variables. this research also controls and changes the other variables. the purpose of experimental research is to study the cause and effect relationship.

Example for Experimental research is discussed below
  • Education, a high degree of skill, sectors and experiences all are independent variables, which separately influence salary of an individual. if any of these variable is higher, the salary of an individual will be higher.

2. Application based Research

It seeks to solve practical problems. this type of research plays an important role in solving everyday problems that often have an impact on life, work, health and overall well-being.

Following are the types of application based research

1. Basic/Pure/Fundamental Research

Basic research involves the process of collecting and analysing data/information to develop or enhance theory. In its purist from basic research is conducted solely for the purpose of theory development and refinement.

Basic research advances fundamental knowledge about the human world. it focuses on refusing or supporting theories that explain how this world operates, what makes things happen, why social relations have a certain way, and why society changes.

It generates new ideas, principle and theories, which may not be immediately utilised;though , it laid the foundations of modern progress and development in different fields.

some of the example of basic research are following
  • A study, assessing whether men or women are likely to suffer from depression.
  • A study, looking at how caffeine consumption impacts the brain.
  • A study, looking at how family environment influences the socialisation of a child.

2. Applied Research

It is conducted to solve a specific practical problem of an individual or group or society. it is used in medicine, business and education in order to find solutions that may cure diseases, solve scientific problems or develop technology. It uses the data directly from real world application.
The ultimate goal of an applied research is to improve the human condition.
Some of the example of applied research are following:
  • Finding out the best way to approach and treat diseases like anxiety/depression/asthma etc.
  • studying about the kinds of motivations that will invigorate people, so they can set up and take part in different kinds of charities.
  • A study into the ways of fostering creative deviance amongst employees without compromising respect for authority.

Difference between Fundamental and Applied Research

Fundamental Research
1. It is the research which is generally conducted to develop some new theories
2. It is inductive in nature that means it comes with new theory discoveries.
3. it is also called as basic research or pure research.
4. It is qualitative in nature.

Applied Research

1. It is the research which is generally conducted to solve the problem of the organisation setting.
2. It is inductive in nature that means it keeps some theories as its base while conducting research.
3. It is also called as action research.
4. It is quantitative in nature.
3. Logic based Research: Logic  based research is guided by the logical processes of induction and deduction. following are the types of logic based research:

1. Deductive Research

In deductive research the researcher studies what others have done, reads existing theories and then tests hypothesis that emerge from those theories.

In deductive research the researcher moves from a more general level to a more specific level. This research is very economical as it saves time and energy of both the students and the teachers. The deductive method or approach involves the three steps

  • Firstly, state the hypothesis based on the theory or research literature.
  • Secondly, collect data to test the hypothesis.
  • Finally, make proper decision that hypothesis supported or not.
One of the drawback of this research is that, it is unnatural and psychological for the students who do not possess ability to appreciate abstract ideas in the absence of concrete examples.

2. Inductive Research

In an inductive research a researcher collects the data that is relevant to his or her topic of interest. After data collection the researcher looks for a pattern based on his/her observations and develops a theory or hypothesis.
The inductive approach also involved the three steps
  • Firstly, observe the different events or phenomena in the world.
  • Secondly, try to identify the pattern between the different observations.
  • Finally, make a general view about what is occurring.
In inductive research, the student's curiosity is well kept up till the end when generalisations are arrived at. one of the drawback of this research is that, the insufficient data may sometimes lead the researcher to wrong generalisations.

We can take an example to illustrate the inductive research.
  • A researcher collected data about depression and aggression among teenagers. after analysing the data the researcher established a pattern that a no. of teenagers became depressed and aggressive after declaration of results of their board exams. The researcher developed a generalised theory that over expectation of parents from their child is the main reason of depression and aggression among them.

4. Formation/interaction/inquiry based Research

Formation based research depends on the interaction of researchers with a set of people. the mode of interaction could be direct or indirect.
Following are the types of Formation based research

1. Unstructured Research

In unstructured research the problem which has to be investigated is not pre-determined, rather they are spontaneous. In this type of research, the researcher is free to explore nature of problem, issue or phenomenon without quantifying it. some of the examples of unstructured research are

  • Study of the diversity of food pattern in different parts of india
  • Study of choices of voters for their political parties
  • Study of career choice of a certain age group.

2. Structured Research

A structured research (also known as systematic observation) is a data collecting method, in which researcher gather data without direct involvement with the participants. the data collection technique is structure in a well defined and procedural manner. it uses a coding method for data collection.

Previously determined specific behaviours or actions that qualify as manifestations of the behaviour of interest are used for coding. we can take the following example to understand the structured research.
  • A development psychologist is interested in helping behaviours in toddlers. he want to use structured observation, so a coding method is developed. he identifies, which behaviours or actions qualify as helping behaviours (helping another child who has fallen or hurt themselves, sharing a toy or snack, finding a lost item for another etc.) whenever, the researcher observes one of these behaviour it is marked down. coding allows for observations to be quantitative.

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