UGC NTA NET Exam Preparation | Elements of Effective Communication |Unit-4h |Part-6th|

 UGC NTA NET Exam Preparation | Elements of Effective Communication |Unit-4h |Part-6th|


1. Verbal Communication
2. Non-verbal communication
3. Intercultural Communication
4. Group Communication
5. Classroom Communication

1. Verbal Communication

It refers to the form of communication in which message is transmitted verbally. the term KISS (keep it short and simple) is almost used in verbal communication. verbal communication is further divided into 2 categories. These are oral and written communication.

1. Oral Communication: it includes face-to-face conversation by pitch, volume, speed and clarity of speaking. they all are termed as para language.
  • Pitch: It is a degree of highness or lowness of tone which is depend on frequency of sound wave. it is an important device or element in teaching-learning process.
  • Volume: It depends on the no. of people and proximity. it is measured in decibels unit.
  • Speed: while delivering the word, one should ,maintain the speed because a rhythmic voice makes sound more clear. Irregular speech may show a sign of uncertainty.
  • Clarity of Speaking: proper pronunciation and smooth delivery of words make a message very effective.
Advantages of oral communication
  • It brings quick feedback
  • It is voluntary and natural,so that easy for other to understand
  • it establishes a close relationship b/w speaker and listener
  • It also supports non-verbal communication
  • By reading facial expression and body language one can guess whether he should trust, what is being said or not.
Disadvantages of oral communication
  • The delivered words are temporary.
  • what is heard is often forgotten
  • user is enable to think about what he is delivering.
2. Written Communication:
The communication which is performed through any written document is called written communication. written language, signs, symbols are used to communicate in this communication.
Message can be transmitted via, email,letter,report, memo etc. therefore, written communication is the process of communication in which message or information is exchanged or communicated within sender and receiver through written form. Vocabulary, grammar, writing styles, precision, clarity of the language, etc influence message, which are sent by the sender.

Written communication is most common form of communication in business firms. thus, it is considerable as core, among the business skills.

Advantages of written communication

  1. Message can be revised and edited many times before being sent thus, there is less chance of error.
  2. It provides record for every message sent and can be saved for later study.
  3. A written message enables receiver to fully understand it.
  4. Written message sends appropriate feedback.

Disadvantages of written communication

  1. It does not bring instant feedback.
  2. It takes more time in composing a written message
  3. Not everyone is good at writing.
2. Non-Verbal Communication: The non-verbal communication are those communication where the sending or receiving of message are done through the wordless message. it means that communication is established other than oral and written. it is all about the body language of the speaker and does not make use of words. these are three distinct areas involved in this type of communication. They are:
  • Kinesics: It is body language that includes messages sent by gesture, facial expression, eye contact, postural variation and touch.
  • Proxemics: It includes the signaling communication, means deals with the regulation of social distances or territoriality. for e.g., telephonic communication.
  • Para language: It involves all those vocalisations that are not verbal but form a part of communication. for e.g., voice tone, volume, speech rate etc.
Advantages of Non-verbal Communication
  1. Information can be easily presented in non-verbal communication.
  2. This type of communication helps to illiterate people to communicate with otters by using gestures, facial expression, eye contact, proximity, touching etc.
  3. The message of non-verbal communication reached the receiver very fast. thus, reduce the time of both communicator and receiver.
  4. In this communication people can repeat the verbal messages according to their need for example point in a direction while stating directions.
Disadvantages of Non-Verbal Communication
  1. It is quite vague and imprecise.
  2. in this type of communication long conversation and necessary explanations are not possible.
  3. As gestures and facial expression are used in this communication so it is difficult to understand quickly and requires a lot of repetitions to clarify the meaning of something.
  4. It does not follow any rules, formality or structure like other communication.
  5. In non-verbal communication there is a great possibility in distortion of information.

3. Intercultural Communication

This communication takes place between different cultures. basically,'inter' is a prefix that means 'between' and 'cultural' means from a culture. in this communication, we study about communication across different cultures and social groups or how culture affects communication.


through this communication we understand how people from different countries and cultures act, communicate and perceive the world around them. research is a major part of the development of intercultural communication skills.

This type of communication focuses on social attributes thought patterns and the cultures of different groups of people in a country and around the world. it plays a great role in various disciplines of social science such as, cultural studies anthropology, linguistics,psychology and communication studies. intercultural communications considered as the base for international businesses. this development of communication helps several cross-cultural service providers.

Advantages of Intercultural Communication

  1. It is important to establish and maintain positive intergroup relations.
  2. it can increase cultural knowledge and awareness, communication skills and tolerance for ambiguity.
Disadvantages of Intercultural Communication

  1. Sometimes foreigner students experience feelings of uncertainty and anxiety about how to integrate into their host society
  2. It also creates incompatibility among students, intercultural conflicts and social alienation.

4. Group Communication

  • A group is a no. of people who shared a common goal.
  • It is an extension of interpersonal communication where more than two individuals are involved in the exchange of ideas, skill and interests.
  • It may be a group of residents on a street, students meeting outside the class etc.
  • It provides an opportunity for people to come together to discuss and exchange views of common interest.
  • It includes collective decision-making, self-expression, increasing one's effect and elevating one's status.

Advantages of Group Communication

  1. In group communication people have chances to gain more information and knowledge.
  2. Through group communication many goals can be achieved like, collective decision-making, self-expression, increasing one's effect, elevating one's status and relaxation and so on.
  3. by group communication people eliminates all the biases that are generally introduced due to individual decision making. it also reduces the unreliability of individual decisions.
Disadvantages of Group Communication
  1. In group communication group interaction is time consuming and often inefficient, especially in an emergency
  2. In group communication imbalances in status, skills and goals, may distort the process and the outcome sharply.

5. Classroom Communication

Effective class room  is essential for a well run classroom. it is is the responsibility of all those in involved in the prosses of communication witch include teacher, student , message, Instructional methods and media and learning environment.
Communication would be effective if it furthers the cause of learning and makes teaching learning a mutually gainful experience. how do we achieve it?
How does communication facilitate teaching learning? What is the magic word? it is in the context that a reference is made to supplementary means that may help improve classroom proceeding as well as keep alive the pupil's interest and concentration.

Principles of Effective Classroom Communication: There are 4 principles of effective classroom communication, which are elaborated under the following heads

1. Principles of Teachers: A teacher should have following qualities while interaction with the students.

  • Understand the Learners: A classroom teacher should have information about the learner's character such as motivation, previous knowledge and interest, as well as cognitive style. Thus, teacher cannot be treated all the students in the same manner because each individual is alike to each other.

  • Develop Effective Communication Skill: A teacher should have a great communication skill of both the aspects i.e. verbal and non-verbal. A teacher can record his/her own audio strength and analyse the same for identifying the strength and weakness in the spoken language. he remains open to feedback from his colleagues, peer group, seniors as well as students too.
  • Knowledge of Pedagogy and Andragogy: A teacher should have knowledge of pedagogy and andragogy therefore he enables to plan, organise, deliver and evaluate instructions. Thus, a teacher easily promotes the learning among the students.
  • Adopt Flexible Technique:A teacher should be flexible that helps him to modify the teaching techniques according to the needs of students.
  • Develop Proficiency in the Subject Matter: A teacher should be expert in his subject and should have potential to satisfy students by solving their quaries while teaching.
2. Principles for Message Design: 

  • Clear and specified objective: To be clear and specified a message shout be smart. it means message should be specific, measurable, achievable, realistic, and time framed.
  • Proper sequence: A message should be in proper sequence and organised as simple to complex, easy to difficult, concrete to abstract, known to unknown, observation to reasoning, etc.
  • Easy Language: The language of the message should be easy, simple and understandable to the learners. technical jargon should be avoided.
  • Appropriate Symbols: Symbols used in messaging should be correct and standardised
  • Relevant Exercise: The exercise given by the teacher should be varying difficulty level and involve the learners meaningfully.
3. Principles for Selection of Instructional Methods and Media

  • Relevant Methods and Media: The method should be appropriate and media's operational processes should be relevant toward the objectives, content and context. therefore, it is appropriate to the level of learners.
  • Variety of Method and Media: A variety of methods and media are used by a teacher in order to provide individual indifferences among the learners and to discourage the monotony.
  • Better Quality of Media: A great quality of media is used in the classroom in terms of its colours, finishing, visibility and printing.
  • Integrate Media in Teaching-Learning: During the teaching learning process, the media should not be isolated although it must be integrated so that, it boost-up the understanding of the students or learners
4. Principles for Creating Conductive Learning Environment

  • Class should not be overcrowded:The classes should not be overcrowded. if it is so, then it is difficult for a teacher to manage the class and not pay attention to each learner. Therefore, the ratio b/w teacher-student should be specified.
  • Proper sitting Arrangement: For the successful learning, there should be proper sitting arrangement in the classroom, Therefore, a student interacts easily with the teacher.
  • Build Good relationship with student: A teacher should make good relationship with student. Therefore, he should know each and every student in the class by name and be friendly with them.
  • Encourage Cooperation and Healthy Competition: A teacher should encourage cooperation and healthy competition among the student by assigning group activities and pairing students with average or poor students.
  • Strengthening: A teacher should provide strengthening to the students for their desired communication behaviour through praise, rewards, social recognition, etc.







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