UGC NTA NET Exam Preparation | Thesis and Article Writing: Format and styles of Referencing | Unit-2nd | Part- 7 |

 UGC NTA NET Exam Preparation | Thesis and Article Writing: Format and styles of Referencing | Unit-2nd | Part-7 |

Thesis Writing:

  • A thesis is a document written in support of obtaining an academic degree or qualification.
  • It is usually longer than research paper and thus completed in a no. of years.
  • A thesis, also called dissertation, is usually associated with postgraduate students; i.e research or master's degree, Ph.D or M.Phil level and is carried out under a supervision of a professor or the academician of the university.
  • Supervisor oversees and guide the progress of thesis writing.
  • A thesis and a research paper, both require the demonstration of extent academic research and the evidence of capacity for critical analysis.
  • The completion of thesis, however, requires the input of original work and author's finding in the field of choose topic.
  • While choosing a topic for a thesis the author must take into consideration the expectation of originality in the field or the input of some relevant new information or ideas.

Format and Styles of the Thesis Writing

  • The thesis is a lengthy experimental design, or theoretical report, with a problem method-results-discussion structure.
  • This recurrent hypothetical deductive pattern of developing a thesis to solve a problem and then constructing a methodology and testing for results is common in research writing
  • Following format should be followed while writing a thesis

Front Matter

The front matter frames the thesis work. it includes the following elements
  • Title Page: The title page should be informative, contain keywords, and reveal the topic of the thesis. on this page title of the thesis, author's name, place and date should be given.
  • Abstract: The abstract should be given in about 100 to 150 words or roughly 5-10 sentences. In this section, the author of the thesis should briefly state the research problem, methodology, key results and conclusion.
  • Table of Content: In this section, a list of key subject heading and sub-heading of the thesis should be given with their page numbers. The author should ensure to include acknowledgement, appendixes and bibliography in the list.
  • List of Figures: This section included the figure numbers, figure titles and page no.
  • List of Tables: This section included the table no., table title and page numbers of the table.
  • Nomenclature: (Optional) in this section, the author can give a list of terms, symbols, acronyms and their meaning.

Body:

The body of the thesis provides the introduction, narrative and analysis of the research work. The body includes the following elements.

  • Introduction: In this section, the author should state the purpose of the investigation, the problem being investigated, the background of the problem, general approach of the thesis, and the criteria for the study's success.

  • Theory: The author should develop the theoretical basis for research design or experimental work, including any governing equation. detailed calculations go to an appendix.

  • Materials, Apparatus and Procedures: The author should give the list and describe key materials and apparatus. then describe the procedure in full detail. for design studies, this section includes component design, fabrication, assembly and testing procedures. the author should use illustrations.

  • Results: The author should present the results, usually with accompanying table and graphs. the author should characterise the patterns and quality of the results and estimate their accuracy and precision.
  • Discussion: In this section, discus the meaning of the results, stating clearly what their significance is, compare the results with theoretical expectations and account for anything unexpected.
  • Conclusions: In this section, review the results in relation to the original problem statement. Assess the success of the study in light of the criteria of success mentioned in the introduction part.
  • Recommendations: In this section, the author can recommend directions for future work.

End Matter:

The end matter is mainly referential material.
It includes following elements
  • Acknowledgement: In this section, the author should acknowledge assistance from advisors, sponsors, funding agencies, colleagues, technicians and so on.
  • Appendixes: In this section, the author should provide detailed calculations, procedures, data in separate appendix give each appendix a title, a letter (Appendix A,B,C) and an introductory paragraph.
  • Bibliography: The author should give an alphabetical list of works referred during the study. it is suggested to follow bibliographical and footnote formats of the concerned department or of a prominent periodical published by a professional society in concerned field.

Article Writing

  • A research article is a detailed account of research activity written by the researcher.
  • An article is not bound by the methodology adopted in writing a research paper.
  • A research covers the entire outcome of research while an article is a topic specific essay.
  • The main aim of an article s to give detailed information on a particular topic.

Format and Styles of Article Writing

1. Front Matter: It includes the following element

  • Title Page: The title page should be informative, contain keywords and reveal the topic of the article. On this page, title of the article and author's name, should be given.
  • Abstract: The abstract should be given in about 100 to 150 words or roughly 5-10 sentences. In this section, the author of the article should briefly state the research problem, methodology, key results and conclusion.
2. Body: It includes the following element

  • Introduction: In this section, the researcher should state the reasons of the conducted study, its theoretical framework, the goal of the research, the problem statement and create hypothesis.
  • Methodology: In this section, the researcher should include sample of the article, how he/she obtained/selected these, what materials (equipment, apparatus and measuring instruments) he used during the article writing and what procedures he/she used in this writing.
  • Results: The researcher should present the results, usually with accompanying text, table and graphs. the author should characterise the patterns and quality of the results and estimate their accuracy and precision.
  • Discussion: The researcher should include the following points in the discussion of article writing such as
  1. Non-technical interpretation of results.
  2. Linking results to original purposes and hypothesis
  3. why the results turned out the way they did.
  4. identifying the study's limitations
  5. Suggesting steps for further research.

3. End Matter: It includes the following element
  • Reference: The researcher must include the references he/she used during writing the article like internet sites, journals, magazines, books, thesis and other sources.


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