UGC NTA NET Exam Preparation: Human and Environment Interaction |Unit-9|Part-3|

 UGC NTA NET Exam Preparation: Human and Environment Interaction |Unit-9|Part-3|


Human beings interact with the environment and modify it according to their need. This modified environment is known as anthropogenic environment.Early humans adapted themselves to the natural surrounding.they led a simple life and fulfilled their requirement from the nature around them.

with the passage of time, the human have learned the new ways to use and change the environment.they learnt to grow crops, domesticate animals and led a settled life. the wheel was invented, surplus food was produced, barter system emerged, trade started and commerce developed. Transportation became faster.information revolution made communication easier and speedy across the world.

Anthropogenic Activities and their impacts on Environment:

Anthropogenic activities or human activities greatly impact our environment. some of the important anthropocentric activities are industrialisation, agricultural activities, use of fossil fuel urbanisation and mining etc, are given below:

Industrialisation:Every nations wants to be a developed nation and to achieve this goal each nation is utilising more and more natural resources.This ultimately leads cut and throat competition at the world level which results in over-exploitation of resources,air pollution, water pollution and other destruction of environment.

Agricultural Activities: Human employs different agricultural practices around the world. Man needs more land to do agricultural practices in order to sustain a large no. of population. Thus, clearing of forest takes place and leads deforestation. The use of pesticides and fertilisers, oil farm tracts, etc lead to water pollution and land pollution/degradation. These chemicals when discharge into water they contaminate the water quality and also become a danger for marine ecosystem. Thus, affect our environment as a whole.

Use of Fossil Fuel: Burning of fossil fuels is the rich source of carbon dioxide which release into the atmosphere and increase the global temperature. this leads changes in our climate and thus, affects our environment.

Urbanisation: More population needs more resources for consumption. population explosion exerts great pressure on the available natural resources which are depleting at a very fast rate than their replenishment rate. the increasing population needs more land for habitation,thus, clearing of forest is taking place to meet the demand of urban area. Thus, urbanisation is also impacting the environment in a greater way.

Mining: To obtain natural resources do mining activity. With the higher demand of natural resources, the mining activity is also increasing day by day. This leads to soil erosion, land degradation, formation of sinkholes,loss of biodiversity,deforestation, contamination of groundwater, surface water, air pollution, and so on. Thus,mining activity is also affecting the environment in a negative sense

Impact of Environment on People: The direct impact of climate factor on different races of human beings can be seen on the colour of skin, hair, noise,cheeks,shape of head, etc.some scholars have attempted to measure the suitability of an environment of human activity, and his comfort and discomfort.

for e.g., the people of middle Asia depend on livestocks, the people of Kalahari and Congo basin depend on hunting and conventional agricultural practices, and the people of polar region depend on hunting and other activities for their subsistence.

Impact of people on Environment: The impact of people on environment can be broadly divided into 2 categories

1. Direct Impact: 

  • These are preplanned and premediated because man is aware of the consequences of change. such changes include land use, construction,mining,nuclear programmes etc.
  • These are noticeable within short period and may continue to affect the environment for long time.
  • These re reversible.
2. Indirect Impact

  • These are not premediated and planned. for e.g., activities which are directed to accelerate the pace of economic growth especially industrial development, urbanisation etc.
  • These are experienced after longtime
  • Majority of indirect impact of human activities on the environment are related to pollution and environmental degradation.

Environment Issues: Pollution is the major environment issue which has been defined as the release of substances and energy as waste product of human activities which result in changes, usually harmful within the natural environment.

In other words, it is a condition which ensures when environmental attributes become harmful to the normal existence of living organism which after people and nations at local, regional and global level.







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