UGC NET NTA Exam Preparation: Arguments Forms, Mood and Figures|Unit-6|Part-2|

 UGC NET NTA Exam Preparation: Arguments Forms, Mood and Figures|Unit-6|Part-2|

1. Argument: 

An argument is a series of statement, called the premises, intended to determine the degree of truth of another statement, the conclusion.

An arguments is a form of communication that tries to persuade its audience to adopt a particular position about a topic.

Argument have 3 main parts

1. A claim that states the position to be argued.
2. Reason that logically explain why the claims should be explained.
3. Evidence that support the reasons with facts, anecdotes, statistics, expert testimony and examples.

Understanding the structure of Arguments:Arguments forms

Arguments are the basis of persuasive communication. They are combinations of statement made that are intended to change the minds of other people. all arguments have structure which can be either deliberately designed or may be discovered through analysis. 

There are 2 main components of reasoning.  Structure of arguments deal with basic terms, validity of arguments, converting sentences into their logical form depending on requirements.

Validity of Arguments: 

  • Deductive argument may be valid or invalid.
  • If an arguments is valid, it is a valid deduction, and if its premises are true, the conclusion must be true.
  • A valid arguments can not have true premises and a false conclusion.
  • The validity of an argument depends not on actual truth or falsity of its premises and conclusion but solely on whether that arguments has a valid logical form or not.
  • The validity of an arguments is not a guarantee of the truth of its conclusion.
  • Under a given interpretation, a valid arguments may have false premises that render it inconclusive.
  • The conclusion of a valid arguments with one or more false premises may be either true or false.

1. Argument /premise/ proposition/statement:

A premise of an argument is something that is put forward as a truth, but which is not proven. although, it is not proven, it is assumed to be true.

for e.g.,
This is a beautiful car.
The people of this town are angry.

if you want to attack another person's argument, you can challenge the truth of their premises. The more complex the premise, the more opportunity there is no challenge it.

2. Conclusion

The conclusion is the statement with which you want the other person to agree. it is drawn from the premise of the arguments, of which there may be many.
for e.g
we need to get out
you should buy this car
A useful way of spotting a conclusion is that it may will be a statement of necessity, saying what must or should happen.it may will be framed to persuade the other person to do something or make some decision.

Relation Argument Form:

  • In relational arguments both premises and their conclusion are relational proposition.
  • they have relational proposition.
  • Deductive of reasoning is also sometime dependent on validity of relational argument.

1. Symmetry:

Symmetrical Relationship
A is equal to B

Asymmetrical relationship
A is greater than B

Non symmetrical Relationship
 A is the sister of B

2. Transitivity

Transitive relation
 A is equal to B
 B is equal to C

Intransitive Relation
A is father of B
B is father of C

Non transitive relations:
A is a enemy/friend/neighbour of B
B is enemy of C

3. Reflexiveness:

Reflexive relationship is b/w a term and itself e.g, is equal to, resembles itself, as young as

4. Partial Reflexiveness: means establishing the relationship b/w with some other thing

e.g., A is tall as B

5. Irreflexive: 

This type of relationship can not be held b/w a term and itself

6.Non-reflexive:

This may or may not be held b/w a term and itself

2. Structure of Categorical Propositions

A categorical propositions (or syllogism) is a type of syllogism whose premises and conclusion are all categorial statement which contains exactly three terms. the major term in a 'categorical syllogism' is the predicate term of the conclusion.the major term is the' subject term' of the conclusion. the middle term is the term that occurs in 'each premise'.
 
Types of categorical Proposition
There are 4 types of categorical proposition, each of which is given a vowel letter A,E,I,O.

1. Universal Affirmative Propositions(A)
2. Universal negative proposition (E)
3. Paricular Affirmative  Proposition (I)
4. Particular negative proposition (O)

3. Mood and Figures of Categorical Proposition

STEPS:

1. Put in standard form
2. Determine mood
3. Determine Figure

All=A
SOME=I
SOME-NOT=O
NO=E

e.g., S1 ALL Men are mortal
         S2 ALL Socrates are men
          Conclusion: Some Socrates ate mortal

Ans. Some Socrates=subject=minor term
           Mortal=predicate=major term

note==
1.standard form== major term always present in 1st statement and minor term always placed in 2nd statement. 

2. Determined Mood AAI

3. Determine possible figure=consider middle term=men==left to right=so it is 1st figure

left to right=1st figure
right to right=2nd
left to left=3rd
right to left=4th 
ANS. AAI=Unconditional valid table given by boolean


Q2. S1 No animal that eat mosquitos are animal should be killed
       S2 All insects are animal that eat mosquitos
       Conclusion: No insect or animal that should be killed.

ans. major term should be killed=present in SI
        minor term=insect or animal= present in s2
1. so that why it present in standard form
2. MOOD AND GIGURE CHECK
No=E
ALL=A
EAE
3. Figure=common term mosquitos=1st figure EAE1=unconditionally valid


Q.3    S1: All dogs are mammals
           S2: No cats are dogs
          Conclusion: Cats are mammals

Ans. 1. standard form check=major term predicate=mammals present in 1st statement and minor term or subject present in 2ND ststement so it is present in standard form

2. Mood= AEA
NOTE=== JAHA PAR KUSH NHI HOTA VHA PAR HUM ALL CONSIDER KARTE HAIN

3. Figure=middle term=dogs=1st condition=unconditionally unvalid

Q.4 S1: some books are edifying
        S2: All books are interesting
        Conclusion: some interesting thing are not edifying

Ans. 1. find standard form=major term=edifying present in S1 and minor term interesting not present in S2 so check option =subject of conclusion and predicate of the second premise

Q.5 S1: All gentlemen are polite
        S2: No criminal are polite
        Conclusion: No criminal are gentlemen

Ans. 1. find standard form=major term =gentlemen not present in S1 predicate and minor term present in S2 so answer that is subject of first premise and predicate of conclusion

                              

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