UGC NTA NET Exam Preparation: Evolution of Higher Learning and Research in Post -Independence Period |unit-10|part-2|

 UGC NTA NET Exam Preparation: Evolution of Higher  Learning and Research in Post -Independence Period |unit-10|part-2|

After attaining independence in 1947, the main task of the government of india was to have a rapid socio-economic development and reconstruction of indian society. the government realised and recognised the important role of education in achieving its objective. The development of higher education after independence can be traced through the following commissions and committees.

1. Radha Krishnan Commission, 1948: The commission was set up to report on university education in the country. its recommendations proved to be of immense significant in establishing an educational system for free india.

it recommended the following

  • There should be 12 years of pre-university educational course.
  • HE should have three main objectives namely central education, liberal education, and occupational education.
  • A university degree should not be considered essential for administrative service.
  • Rural universities with shantiniketan and jamis millia as their models should be established.
  • university education should be placed in 'concurrent' list..
  • A university grant commission (UGC) should be set up look after university education in the country.
  • English as the medium of instruction for higher studies should not be removed in haste.

2. Mudaliar Commission, 1952: The commission was set up to enquire into the status of secondary education in india. it recommended to design a better curriculum pattern and life oriented syllabus. it also laid emphasis on giving vocational training to students.

3. Kothari Education Commision, 1964-66: A commission was set up Dr DS Kothari by GOI to advise on the national pattern of education. its recommendation include the following

  • Free, universal and complusory education pto the age of 14.
  • A three language-formula i.e, mother tongue, hindi and english and also development of regionl languages.
  • Investment of 6% of natonal income on education
  • Training and quality of teachers
  • Development of education for agriculture and industry.

4. Gnanam Committee,1993: The committee was related to financial administration for the universities. it recommended flexibility and autonomy for ensuring academic excellence and asked for restricting the undesirable growth of deemed universities. it also emphasised the necessity of a national commission on HE and research to regulate the quality of education and to encourage research in university system.

5. Sam Pitroda Committee. 2005: It was constituted on 13th june, 2005 and is also famous as national knowledge commission (NKC). it has recommended following:

  • Revise the curricula of existing universities.
  • A central board of undergraduate education should be established along with state boards of undergraduate education.
  • An independent regulatory authority for higher education (IRAHE)should be formed.
  • THE UGC should focus on disbursement of grants and maintaining public institution of higher learning.

6. Yashpal Committee, 2008: The committee was setup to advise on renovation and rejuvenation of HE in 2008 under the chairmanship of yashpal.

key recommendations of yashpal committee are

  • The academic functions of all the professional bodies (such as UGC, AICTE, MCI, and BCI) should be subsumed under apex body for HE called the national commission for HE and research (NCHER), formed through constitutional amendment.
  • Establish a national education tribunal with powers to adjudicate disputes among stakeholder within instructions. 
  • Vocational education sector should be brought within the purview of universities.
  • Quantum of central financial support to state funded universities should be enhanced substantially on an incentive pattern.

7. Sharma Committee: Looking at the declining quality and quantum of scientific research in india, an empowered committee under the chairman of prof MM Sharma was established.

Key recommendations of Sharma Committee are:

  • To promote excellence in research in HE by supporting research programmes of the university and college teachers in various disciplines.
  •  Establishment of indian institute of science, education an d research (IISER) to promote scientific research.
  • At least 500 crores be spent on research in basic science every year by the UGC.                                                     

8. Dr Anil Kakodkar Committee,2009: The committee was set up by GOI to recommend strategies to improve technical education in india, it recommended 2% budget in every institution to be earmarked for research.

9. KB pawar Commitee, 2012: The KB pawar committee constituted by the UGC has recommended 4 models of public-private partnership (PPP) in HE. They are basic infrastructure model, outsourcing model, equity/hybrid model and reserved outsourcing model.

10. Subramanian Committee on New Education Policy, 2016: Under T.S.R Subramanian a committee for evolution of the new education policy (NEP) was constituted by the ministery of human resource development (MHRD) in october 2015. it submitted its report on may 7, 2016. the committee proposed some important features for the development of education. some of the important features are given below:

  • An indian education service (IES) should be established as an All india service.
  • The outlay on education should be raised to atleast 6% of GDP without further loss of time.
  • There should be minimum eligibility condition was 50% marks at graduate level for entry to B.Ed and Teacher entrance test (TET) should be made compulsory for recruitment of teachers.
  • Compulsory certification should be made mandatory for teachers in government an private with provision for renewal every 10 years based on independent external testing.
  • It is also recommended in this committee that the top 200 foreign universities should be allowed to open campuses in india and give the same degree which is acceptable in the home country of the said university.
  • Other recommendations of the committee include ICT in education, the right to education (RTE) act, 009, national higher education promotion and management act, (NHEPMA) early childhood care (ECCE) and so on.

11. Famous Research Councils: The research council are established for carrying out cutting edge research and development activities in diverse areas or fields. india boasts a significant key contribution to global research and development. there are various research council in india. some of which are mentioned below

  • Indian council of social science research: (ICSSR) it was established in 1969 for promoting social science research, strengthening different disciplines, and improving the quality and quantum of research and its utilisation in national policy formulation.
  • Indian council of philosophical research (ICPR) it was set up in 1977 under development of HE in ministry of human resource development as an autonomous organisation for the promotion of research in philosophy and allied discipline. the governing body (GB) and the research project committee (RPC) are the main authorities of the council.
  • Project of history of indian science, philosophy and culture: (PHISPC) it was launched in the year 1990 under the aegis of indian council of philosophical research (ICPR). from 1st april, 1997, PHISPC was officially de-linked from ICPR for greater autonomy to complete the project by the stipulated period, and is now affiliated to centre for studies in civilisations (CSC). GOI has recognised CSC as the nodel agency for the purpose of funding the ongoing project of PHISPC.
  • Indian council of Historical Research (ICHR): It is an autonomous organisation which was established under societies registration act in 1972. the principle objective of the ICHR are to give a proper direction to historical research and to encourage and foster objective and scientific writing in history. it has a broad view of history so as ti include in its fold the history of science and technology, economy, art, literature, philosophy etc and allied subjects containing strong historical bias and contents. the ICHR has established two regional centres one at bengaluru and the other at guwahati with a view to reach out the far flung areas of the country.
  • National Council of Rural Institute (NCRI): it is a registered autonomous society fully funded by the central government. it was established on 19th october 1995 with its headquarters at hyderabad. its main objectives are to promote rural higher education on the lines of Mahatma Gandhi's vision for education so as to take up challenges of micro planning for transformation of rural areas as envisaged in national policy on education (NPE), 1986.

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