UGC NTA NET Exam Preparation | Mass Media and Society | Unit-4th | Part-8 |

 UGC NTA NET Exam Preparation | Mass Media and Society  | Unit-4th | Part-8 |

The word media comes from the plural of the Latin word medium and it is used as s collective noun refer to TV, radio, newspaper, magazines, films, the international network (internet) etc. The media can be examined either in terms of broadcast media or print media.

Media and society are closely related to each other. with the advancement in technological area, our society has also observed the expansion in the thoughts and idea of people. Mass media has become an integral part of our society as we are just a clock away from any information that is available on the internet. This could happened due to various media units of the country. therefore, mass media is also known as the fourth state or pillar of a democratic nation.

Media has become the most authentic source of information for helps in bringing considerable changes in the existing laws as per the prevailing social conditions, by playing the role of intermediary b/w the government and the mass.
May journalists and writers gave the following definitions about mass media such as
According to Denis Mc-Quai, "Media is the mechanism of change of society.
According to Rashmi Bohra, "Media is the mirror of society".
According to RK Majumdar, "Media is the medium through which the society is educated

Objective of Mass Media:

The main objective of mass media is to provide knowledge, educate and entertain people. The important objectives of mass media are given below
  • To provide information about different aspects of human life.For e.g.,education, government policies, programmes and so on.
  • To convey cultural and educational programmes.
  • To entertain People
  • To create public awareness
  • to establish international relation
  • establish social contact and linkage
  • also help in facing disaster and calamity and so on.

Characteristics of mass media communication

There are 4  major distinctive features of mass communication

1. Distance: The sender and the receiver are the two major components of a communication system. There is, however a gap or a break b/w the sender and the receiver. The sender in this case is the maker of the media text, do not have a direct access to the feedback of the audience. This means that one of the characteristics of mass communication is that it is a one way process. 
  • For the producers of the information, the audience is imaginary as well as stereotypical. They need to shape their information accordingly. not just the audience, but they also have to base their ideas on a conceptual of presumed thought
2. Technology:The next feature of mass communication is the use of specialised technologies for e.g., the internet profoundly affect the one way system of communication.

The specialised technologies have also made transfer of message in their physical forms with the means of photographs,films, tape recordings, etc. such ways of storing information has also led to historical durability.

3. Scale: The next characterise is that the mass media message are capable of extending itself globally. selling of the syndicated rights to the world helps the media institutions to gain profit.

4. Commodity: The above characteristic have led to the emergence of media as a modern commodity or an industry. Thus, it is highly influenced by the market forces. media, thus have become the centre of life both socially and culturally.

Functions of Mass Media

Mass media undertakes several functions in a societal set-up. some of these are given below

1. Providing Information: The most important and foremost role of mass media is to provide information about different aspect of human life. For e.g., education, government policies, programmes summits and so on. its main function in a democratic country is to create awareness among the masses. Thus, mass media plays a great role in this respect

2. Providing Entertainment: Mass media plays an important role in providing entertainment on a larger extent. Operas, movies, stories, (published), music, video, photographs, internet, podcasts are used by the media to entertain and enthrall audience. Mass Media is a great source for the incidence, seeking the emotional release.

3. Socialising People: Mass media connects people in the world. through mass media, the world has become a 'Global Village'. Now, people can share their thoughts, opinions and views freely on social networking sites like twitter, whatsapp, facebook and so on.

4. Work as a Responsible Source: Mass media works as a responsible source in the society. The media keeps watch on the government and others in power. Local news stations often have a segment in which they investigate problems for people, entire,hour long news shows are devoted to exposes, which are stories designed to expose wrongdoing. Government officials, who engage in bad behaviour know that, they will be on every news show and newspaper in the country, if they are caught.

5. Providing Political Forum: The media also provides a forum to the political leaders belonging to different parties and ideologies. this function of the media becomes very active and an important at the time of campaigns during elections.

In this, candidates belonging to various parties often broadcast advertisements and debates on television. it is only through these mediums that voters learn about the candidates as well as the issues raised by them.

6. Being the Common Carrier: Mass media plays a great role in exchanging news and information as well. media acts in a dual manner. on one side, the people learn about the policies and ideologies of the government; while on the other side, media also helps in informing the government about what people really want.

Social Media: New Form of Media

Today internet has made everything almost possible. it made the world like a 'Global Village'. it became possible by social networking or social media. social media is computer-based technology which facilitates the sharing of ideas, thoughts and information through the building of virtual networks and communities. e.g., of social media are blogs, facebook, instagram, twitter, whatsapp, wikipedia, youtube, news portal etc, which successfully have created a unique place in the internet world. different types of social media are given below

1. Facebook
It is an american online social media which was launched on 4th february, 2004, by Mark Zuckerberg. It is operated by Facebook Inc which is based on Menlo Park, California. Facebook can be accessed from devices with internet connectivity.

To become a facebook user one has to create an account on facebok and after registering users may join common-interest user groups organised by workplace, school hobbies and so on. It can also be used by Companies for advertising their products. 

2. Instagram: It is a social networking service where people can create their accounts and can share their photos and videos. It was launched by Kevin Systrom and Mike Krieger in 2010. It is owned by facebook Inc. Company.

3. Twitter: it is an american online news and social networking service which can be used by any person by creating an account. Twitter was created in March 2006 by jack dorsey, Noah Glass, Biz Stone and Evan Williams. on this social networking site users can post and interact with messages known as 'tweets'. Before 2017 tweets were restricted to 140 characters, but from November 2017, this limit was doubled for all language except chinese, japanese and Korean.

4. Youtube: Youtube, LLC is a video-sharing website where anyone can upload, view rate and share, add to favourites, report, comment on videos and subscribe to other users. it was created by Chad Hurley, Steve Chen and Jawed Karim in 2005. The headquarters of youtube is in San Bruno California, America. In 2006, Google bought this site.

5. Whatsapp: Whatsapp was founded by Jan Koum and Brian Action in 2009. it is a freeware and cross-platform messaging application which can be accessed by anyone who has a smartphone. it is an alternative to SMS. It is owned by facebook. The users of whatsapp can send text messages, voice calls, video calls, images, documents and user location to each other.

6. Blog: It is the short form of 'Weblog' which was coined by Jorn Barger on 17th December, 1997. The term 'Blog' was coined by Peter Merholz in 1999. Initially some online journals were published which consisted of links of news, other information and about the details of bloggers. These were known as 'Blogs' and the writers who used to write these blogs were known as 'Blogger'. Gradually blogs became popular but to write these blogs, bloggers needed to have knowledge about the computer programming languages like html language.

But after seeing possibilities some website provided free and easy equipment to write these blogs where bloggers did not need to know about the computer programming language.

Blogs can be written about any aspect of life and in any language of the world. Blog became more famous from the time when an American Soldier wrote about his experience during the war when America attacked on Afghanistan.

Effects of Mass Media: The effects of mass media can be seen through the following points

Positive Effects: 
  • Mass media informs the public about government policies and programmes and how these programmes can be useful to them. This helps the people voice their feelings and helps the government to make necessary changes in their policies or programmes.
  • It can bring in positive social change.
  • It can entertain people
  • It can act as an agent of change in development
  • It can help the political and democratic processes of a country.
  • It has bought people of the world closer to each other.
  • It can educate the pupil ad promotes trade and industry through advertisements.
Negative Effects
  • The traditional culture of country is adversely affected by mass media.
  • Entertainment has become the main component of mass media. this affect the primary objectives of media to inform and educate people.
  • Mass media promotes violence. studies have proved that violence shown on television and cinema, have negative effects on children.
  • It also promotes the desire in people to buy and own products that are advertised through the media but which may not be essential for them.
Important Units or Institutions of Mass Media:
The important mass media units of india are given below:

1. Prasar Bharti: Prasar Bharti is a public service broad centre in india with Akashvani (All India Radio) and Doordarshan as its 2 constituents.

It came into existence on 23rd November, 1997 and mandated to organised and conduct public broadcasting services to inform, educateand entertain the public. It also ensures a balanced development of broadcasting on radio and television. Therefore, it is also known as Broadcasting Corporation of India (BCI).

2. All India Radio (Akashvani): Radio broadcasting was started in early 1920s. The first programme was broadcasted in 1923 by ther radio club of Bombay.

In 1927, Broadcasting services was set up with 2 privately owned transmitter at Bombay (Mumbai) and culcutta (Kolkata).

The government took over the transmission in 1930 and started operating them under the name of indian broadcasting services.

It was changed to All india radio (AIR) in 1936 and also popularised as Akashvani from 1957. There are 251 radio stations. each of these stations function as the subordinate office of All india radio.

3. Doordarshan: It was started in new delhi on 15th september, 1959. The regular television services commenced in delhi in 1965, mumbai in 1972, Calcutta in 1975 and in Chenni in 1975.

The current form of doordarshan was established on 15th september, 1976.

Doordarshan network consists of 64 Doordarshan kendras/production centres, 24 regional news units, 126 Doordarshan maintence centres, 202 high power transmitters, 828 low power transmitters. very low power transmitters, 18 transposers, 30 channels and DTH services. 

DOORDARSHAN has started DD KISAN on 26th May, 2015 to provide agricultural related scheme, programmes and also educate the farmers.

4. Press and print Media: The office of the registrar of newspapers for india, more popularly known as RNI, came into being on 1st july, 1956 on the recommendadtion of the first press commision in 1953 and by amending the press and registration of Books Act, 1867.

The press and registration of books act contains the duties and function of RNI.

The registrar of newspapers for india is required to submit an annual report to the Government of the status of newspapers before 31st December every year.

5. Press information Bureau (PIB): The PIB is the nodal agency of the government of india to disseminate information to the print and electronic media on government policies, programme initiatives and achievements.

It has 8 regional offices and 34 branch offices and information centres.

The information material related in English, Hindi, Urdu, and other regional language

6. Press Trust of India (PTI): It is non-profit sharing cooperative owned by the country;s newspapers with a mandate to provide efficient and unbiased news to all its subscribers.

It is the largest news agency of india.

It was founded on 27th Auguust, 1947 and it started functioning from 1st Feb, 1949.

PTI offers its news in the English and Hindi languages. Bhasha is the hindi language news service of the agency

All major TV/Radio channels in india and several abroad, incluing BBC in London, receive PTI service.

7. United News of India (UNI): It was founded in 1959 and now grown into one of te largest news agencies in Asia

UNI have correspondents in major cities such as Washington, London, Dubai, Colombo, Kathmandu, Islamabad, Dhaka, Singapore, Sydney and Vancouver, bringing to our subscribers stories of interest to indian readers.

It has collaboration agreements with several foreign news agencies, including Reuters and DPA.

8. Press Council of India (PCI): It was set up by government of india in 1966 on the recommendations of the first press commission with the object of preserving the freedom of the press and of maintaing and improving the standards of press in india.

The present council functions under the press council Act, 1978.

It is a statutory, quasi judicial body which actss as a watchdog of the press.

9. NAM News network (NNN): It was founded in 1976.
It is the transformation of the now-defunct NANAP or non -Aligned New Agencies Pool.

It is also incumbent upon the NNN to assume the role of a creator of awareness of the potential that exist for expanding trade and economic collaboration among NAM member countries through intelligence sharing and building of e-knowledge capacity.

10. Central Board of Film: It was founded in 1952 with its headquarters at Mumbai.

It is responsible for certifying the films produced in india as well as outside the country.

The board gives four categories of categories of certificates 'U' for unrestricted public exhibition with parental guidance for children below the age 12 and 'S' for exhibition restricted audience such as doctors etc.

11. Children's Film Society, India: It was founded in 1955 and function as an autonomous body under the administrative control of ministry of information and broadcasting.

The society provides value based entertainment for children and also fulfils their psychological and educational needs through the medium of films.

12. Film and Television Institute of India: The institute was set up in 1960 in Pune, as a premier institute for imparting training in the art and technique of film making.

Since, 1974, it started giving training to Doordarshan employees in television production.
The institution was renamed as film and television institute of india i  1974 also.

13. Indian Institute of Mass Communication (IIMC): It is in augurated on 17th August, 1965 by the then Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, smt indira gandhi. IIMC has provided many course in the field of mass media.

Its working is monitored by the government from time to time.

14. Ministry of Information and Broadcasting: The ministry of information and broadcasting is one among the early ministries set up after india's independence aand sardar vallabhbhai patel was india's first minister of information and broadcasting.

The ministry is entrusted with the task of dissemination information, about government policies, schemes, and programmes through the different medium of mass communication.

The ministry is also the focal point as regard to policy matters related to private broadcasting sector administering of the public broadcasting service like prasar bharti, multi-media advertising and publicity of the policies and programmes of the union government, film promotion and certification and regulation of print media

The ministry of information and broadcasting is functionally organised into three wings
Information wings
Broadcasting Wings
Film Wings


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