UGC NTA NET Exam Preparation: National and International Efforts/Agreement To Conserve Environment |Unit-9|Part-10|

 UGC NTA NET Exam Preparation: National and International Efforts/Agreement To Conserve Environment |Unit-9|Part-10|

Environment Protection Act, 1986:After the Bhopal Gas Tragedy, The Government of india enacted the environment protection act of 1986 under Article 253 of the constitution.

The Environment protection act, 1986 came into effect on 19th November 1986. In this act, main emphasis is given to "Environment", defined to include water, air land and human beings and other.

The Act provides a framework for central Government, Coordination of the activies of various central and state authorities established under previous ACts, such as th Water Act and the Air Act.

National Action Plan on Climate Change

National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC): Government of india has launched 8 missions on 30th june 2008 as art of the NAPCC in specific areas i.e. solar energy, enhanced energy efficiency,sustainable habitat, water, sustaining the Himalayan ecosystem, green india, sustainable agriculture and strategic knowledge for climate change, which include assessment of the impact of climate change and actions needed to address climate change. 

The 8 missions are

1. National Solar Mission: The NAPCC aims to promote the development and use of solar energy for power generation and other uses. Its ultimate objective is to create solar energy. other objectives include the establishment of a solar research centre, increased international collaboration on technology development, strengthening of domestic manufacturing capacity and increased government funding and international support.

2. National Mission for Enhanced Energy Efficiency: It aims to promote energy efficiency by providing energy-saving certificates to companies, financing public-private partnerships to reduce energy consumption and reducing taxes on energy efficiency appliances.

3. National Mission on Sustainable Habitat: In this mission the aim is to promote energy efficiency as a core component of urban planning by extending the existing energy conservation building code and provide incentive to use public transportation. it also emphasises on waste management and recycling.

4. National Water Mission: With water scarcity projected to worsen as a result of climate change, the plan sets a goal of 20% improvement in water use efficiency through printing and other measures.

5. National Mission for Sustaining the Himalayan Ecosystem: The plan aim to conserve biodiversity, forest cover and other ecological values in the Himalayan region, where glaciers that are a major source of india's water supply are projected to recede as a result of global warming.

6. National Mission for a green india: Goals include the afforestation of 6 million hectares of degraded forest land, expanding forest cover from 23% to 33% of india's territory and enhance annual CO2 sequestration by 50-60 million tonnes in the year 2020.

7. National Mission for sustainable agriculture: The plan aims to support climate adaptation in agriculture through the development of climate resilient crops, expansion of water insurance mechanisms and agricultural practices.

8. National Mission on Strategic Knowledge for Climate Change: To gain a better understanding of Climate science, impact and challenges, the plan envisions a new climate science research fund, improved climate modelling and increased international collaboration. it also encourages private sector initiatives to develop the adaptation and mitigation technologies through venture capital funds.

Montreal Protocol, 1989: Montreal Protocol was signed in 1987 and came into force in 1989. it has been signed by 197 countries making it universally ratified protocol in united nations history. it seeks to cut the production and consumption of ozone depleting substances (ODS) in order to protect the earth's fragile ozone layer. 

The Montreal Protocol (MP) aims at phasing out zone depleting substances such as chlorofluorocarbon (CFCs) and hydro-chlorofluorocarbon (HCFCs) that were mostly used in air conditioning, refrigerating and foam industry by 2030.

Rio Summit, 1992: In june 1992, the united nations conference on Environment and development (UNCED), also known as the Rio Earth Summit, was held in Rio de janeiro in Brazil. it was a major united nations conference. A significant accomplishment of the summit was an agreement on the climate change convention.
in this summit some important issues were raised which brought good results such as:
  • Patterns of Production: Particularly the production of toxic components, such as lead in gasoline, or poisnous wastes are being scrutinised in a systematic manner by the UN and Government alike;
  • Alternative sources of energy are being sought to replace the use of fossil fuel which are linked to global climate change;
  • Another conference was held in june 2012, in Rio namely, the united nations conference on sustainable development  it is also commonly called Rio+20 or Rio Earth Summit 2012.

Convention on Biodiversity: The convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) enacted in 1992, is an international legally-binding treaty, covers biodiversity at all levels: ecosystem, species and genetic resources. it also covers biotechnology through the cartagena protocol on Bio-safety. it is often seen as the key document regarding sustainable development.
It has three main objectives:

1. The conservation of biological diversity
2. The sustainable use of the components of biological diversity
3. The fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of the utilisation of genetic resources.

Kyoto Protocol: It is an international agreement which is linked to the united nations framework convention on climate change. the Kyoto protocol was adopted in Kyoto,japan, in December 1997, which came into force in February 2005.

Through its principle of "common but differentiated responsibilities", the protocol places a heavier burden on developed nations of the world. during the second commitment period, 37 industrialised countries and the European community committed to reduce GHG emissions by at least 18 percent below 1990 levels in the eight-year period from 2013 to 2020.

Paris Agreement: The 21st conference of parties under the UNFCCC agreed on adoption of the Paris agreement on post-2020 actions on climate change.This universal agreement is to succeed the Kyoto protocol.
This agreement is different from the Kyoto protocol in that it provides a framework for all countries to take step to curb climate change. the agreement covers all crucial areas identified as essential for a comprehensive and balanced agreement, including mitigation,adaptation,loss and damage, finance, technology development and transfer and capacity building.

International Solar Alliance:The international solar alliance was launched by india in 2015. in 2016, around 121 countries joined this alliance. among its member countries most of them are sunshine countries, which lie either completely or partly b/w the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn. The main focus of this alliance is on solar power utilisation.

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