UGC NTA NET Exam Preparation: Policies, Governance and Administration|unit-10|part-6|

 UGC NTA NET Exam Preparation: Policies, Governance and Administration|unit-10|part-6|

There are different policies on education which are given below:

National Policy on Education (NPE), 1968:

The NPE is based on the recommendations of the kothari commision (1964-66). however, in 1967 the government constituted a committee of members of parliament on education, popularly known as sapru committee to prepare the draft of a statement on the national policy on education (NPE).

The draft prepared by the committee was considered and approved by the CABE. it was on this basis that the GOI announced the NPE 1968.
Following are the main features of NPE
  • It emphasised the need for raising the standards of education at all levels.
  • it suggested the new universities to be established only after proper planning and provisions of adequate funds.
  • it emphasised on strengthening of post-graduate teaching and research as well as of centres of advanced study.

National Policy on Education, 1986: 

The new national policy on education was announced in may 1986. it comprises 12 parts and discussed in detail the essential characteristics of a national system of education.
the recommendations are
  • it provides for a common educational structure like 10+2+3
  • it suggested strengthening of adult education, vocational education, gradual replacement of affiliating system by autonomous colleges, setting up of open university and rural university system and fortifying technical and management education.

National Education Policy 1992 (NPE, 1992): 

The NPE-1986 was modified by the then prime ministerManmohan singh and P.V narasimha Rao government in 1992. it was adopted in 2005 which was recognised as "common minimum programme

salient features of NPE, 1992 are as follows:

  • it implemented all india bases common entrance examination for admission in all professional and technical programmes in india.
  • the indian government laid down a three-exam scheme for admission to engineering and architecture/planning programmes such as :JEE, AIEEE at national level and SLEEE state level engineering entrance examinations.
  • In this policy state level institutions have option to join AIEEE.

National Education Policy, 2016

The draft of national education policy (NEP) 2016 was released by the MHRD. the focus of the policy is to address gender discrimination, the creation of educational tribunals, and a common curriculum for science, mathematics and english.

The salient features of NEP-2016 regarding HE are as follows
  • At the national level, a teacher education university will be set up covering various aspects of teacher education and faculty development.
  • keeping in view special importance of sanskrit to the growth and development of india languages and its unique contribution to the cultural unity of the country, facilities for teaching sanskrit at the school and university stages will be offered on more liberal scale.
  • an independent mechanism for administering the national HE fellowship programme will be put in place.
  • An expert committee will be constituted to study the system of accreditation which will suggest restructuring of NAAC and NAB as well as redefining methodologies, parameters and criteria.
  • A quality assurance mechanism for accreditation of all universities/institution offering ODL/MOOCS will be put in place to ensure quality, promote innovation and reshape and modernise the ODL/MOOCS courses and programmes.
  • A task force of experts will be set up to study the recruitment, promotion and retension procedures, followed by internationally renowned universities and institutions and suggest measures to promote intellectual and academic excellence in HE institutions (HEIs)
  • A national camping will be launched to attract young talent into the teaching profession. therefore, a career growth in professional courses such as M.phil, Ph.D will be created.
  • A clear reorientation of research agenda of national university of educational planning and administration (NUEPA) will be undertaken to reflect actual issues on the ground.
  • The government will take steps for reaching the long pending goal of raising the investment in education sector to at least 6% of GDP as  a priority.
  • In order to encourage excellence and efficiency performance linked funding of HE institutions (HEIs) will be implemented
  • in Order to promote innovation, creativity and entrepreneurship, 100 more incubation centres will be established in HE over a period of next 5 years.

National Governance and Administration:

Education is listed in the concurrent list of seventh schedule of the indian constitution. thus, both the centre and state can make legislation on it. if there is any dispute occurred the upper hand goes to the centre.

1. Central government- the government of india has controlled the education through following functions
  • It lays down the national policy on education
  • it provides grants to UGC
  • it establishes central universities and institutions of national importance.
  • it declares an educational institution as deemed university on the recommendation of the UGC.
2. State Government--- the state government has performed following functions
  • many states have also set up state council and advisory boards to provide guidelines for proper functioning of HE institutions in the states.
  • these state council coordinate the role of government universities and apex regulatory agencies for HE within the state.
3. Central Advisory board of education (CABE): 
it is the highest advisory body to advise the central and state governments in the field of education. it was established in 1920 and its present form is continued from 1994.
it plays a pivotal role in reviewing educational development, determining the changes required to improve the system and monitoring the implementation.

Ministry of Human Resource Development, MHRD:
MHRD was created on 26th September, 1985, through the 174th amendment to the government of india (allocation of business) rule, 1961.
currently, the MHRD works through two departments
1. Department of school education and literacy.
2. Department of HE

Objectives of MHRD
  • Formulating the national policy on education and to ensure that it is implemented in letter and spirit.
  • planned development including expanding access and improving quality of the educational institutions throughout the country, including the regions where people do not have easy access to education.
  • paying special attention to disadvantages groups like poor, females and the minorities.
  • provide financial help in the form of scholarships, loan, subsidy, etc to deserving students from deprived sections of the society.
  • encouraging international cooperation in the field of education, including working closely with the UNESCO and foreign governments as well as universities to enhance the educational opportunities in the country.

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