UGC NTA NET Exam Preparation : Types of Pollution |Unit-9| Part-4|

 UGC NTA NET Exam Preparation : Types of Pollution |Unit-9| Part-4|


Generally, pollution are divided into various types as under

1. Air Pollution: It occurs due to the presence of undesirable solid or gaseous particles, particular matter in the air, in quantities that are harmful to human health and the environment.

Causes of Air Pollution

1. Burning of fossil fuels: sulfur dioxide emitted from the combustion of fossil fuels like coal, petroleum, and other factory combustibles. pollution emitting from vehicles including trucks, jeeps, cars, trains, airplanes cause immense amount of pollution.

Overuse of transportation emits dangerous gases such as carbon monoxide along with nitrogen oxides which cause environmental degradation.

2. Agricultural Activities: Ammonia is very common by-product from agriculture related activity and is one of the most hazardous gases in the atmosphere.use of insecticides,pesticide and fertilisers in agricultural activities has grown quite a lot. They emit harmful chemical into air and can also cause water pollution.

3. Exhaust from Factories and Industries: Manufacturing industries release large amount of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, organic compounds, and chemicals into the air thereby depleting the quality of air.
Petroleum refineries also release hydrocarbons and various other chemical that pollute the air and also cause load pollution.

Sources of Air Pollution and their Effects: Sources of Air pollution based on 2 pollutants

1. Primary Air Pollutants

1. Carbon Dioxide (CO2): It is produced when any substance containing carbon is burned. it is also a product of breathing and fermentation. plants absorb carbon dioxide through photosynthesis, and plants and soil return some CO2 to the atmosphere through respiration. 

A similar transfer takes place in the oceans, with absorption being slightly greater than what is released. if carbon dioxide increases in the atmosphere then the temperature of atmosphere increase, the greenhouse effect raise and the climate change can be seen.it also affects the respiratory system of living organism.

2. Carbon Monoxide (CO): is produced by the incomplete burning of carbon based fuels including petrol, diesel and wood.

It is colourless, odourless gas. 50% of total carbon monoxide in atmosphere comes from automobiles. it lowers the amount of oxygen that enters our blood and can slow over reflexes and make us confused and sleepy.
3. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC): It is an organic compound that contains carbon, chlorine and fluorine. its sources are air conditioner, refrigerator, fire extinguisher and cosmetics. It harms our ozone layer that protects the earth from harmful ultraviolet (UV) rays of the sun.

4. Sulphur Dioxide (SO2): It is the major constituent in the emission when sulphur containing coal is burnt. Ore smelters and oil refineries also release significant amount of sulphur dioxide.

A high concentration of SO2 in ambient air causes severe respiratory problems. Exposure to high SO2 concentration is also harmful to plants.

5. Nitrogen Oxide (NO2): It plays a significant role in production of ground level ozone. it can cause heart and kidney related problem. it also causes acid rain after mixing with water droplet and forms nitric acid (NO3).

6. Ozone (O3): The ground level ozone is a pollutant with highly toxic effects. vehicles and industries are the major source of ground level ozone emission. it causes smog and acid rain. it is produced from burning fuels including petrol, diesel and coal. ozone makes our eye itch, burn and tear rolling down. it also lowers our resistance to cold and pneumonia.

7. Methane (CH4): It is evolved from soil microbes in flooded rich fields swamps. it is an extremely efficient green house gas which contributes to enhanced global warming. water deposition in landfills generate methane which is highly flammable and may form explosive mixtures with air.

8. Lead (Pb): It is a major air pollutant that remains largely unmonitored and is emitted by vehicle. Lead paint is also the source of air pollution.

It emits from lead batteries, hair dye products, smelters, combustion of leaded gasoline in piston engine aircraft, waste incinerators etc.

It can cause nervous system damage and digestive problems, and in some cases cause cancer.

9. Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM): it consists of solids in the air in the form of smoke,dust and vapour that can remain suspended for extended periods. it is also the main source of haze which reduces visibility.

The finer of these particles when breathed in can lodge in our lungs and cause damage and respiration problem.

2. Secondary Air Pollutants: Secondary air pollutants include pollutants as

1.Smog: It is the combination of fog and smoke. there are 2 major smog which have been seen for long times. they are
  • Photochemical smog or Los Angeles Smog: is the result of the interaction of sunlight with certain chemicals in the atmosphere. it is formed due to chemical reaction involving nitrogen oxide,ozone,hydrocarbons and peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) in the absence of sunlight. it is named so as it prevailed long years over Los Angeles in USA. it consists of brown hazy fumes which cause irritation in eyes and lungs damage, etc.
  • Sulphurous Smog or London Smog: is a mixture of sulphur dioxide in the air. it is more prevalent during the morning hours of winter season. its name is given as that it affected London for a very long time. London smog causes throat irritation and difficulty in breathing.
          The occurrences of smog are often linked to heavy traffic, high temperature and calm air. During winter, fog can be seen near the ground, hence, smog can take place near the ground level. Heavy smog results in the decrease of natural vitamin-D production, leading to rise the case of rickets.

3. Fly Ash: It is very fine powder and tends to travel far in the air. it is composed of aluminium silicate, silicon dioxide (SIO2), calcium oxide(CAO), toxic heavy metals like lead, arsenic, cobalt and copper.

If fly ash is not captured and disposed off properly, it can pollute air and water considerably. it settles on leaves and crops in fields in areas near to thermal power plants and lowers the plant yield.

Note ---Acid Rain: Acid rain is a precipitation with ph level of less than 5.65. the term acid rain was coined by a Scottish chemist Angus Smith, in 1852. Acid rain occurs usually due to injection of sulphur compounds or nitrogen oxides into the atmosphere, the chemicals combine with water to form sulphuric acid and nitric acid.

it is mainly caused by combustion of fossil fuels which results in emissions of sulphur dioxide (SO2)
and nitrogen oxide (NOX).

Impacts of acid rain are as follows:

the acid rain shows an adverse impact on the forests, freshwater, solid and aquatic life. it also kills the soil organisms.

there is an adverse impact on the nutrients such as magnesium. this is because, calcium and magnesium are leached away by the hydronium ion of the acids.

acid rain is capable of damaging the buildings and historic monuments which are made up of rocks such as limestone, and marble. this is because rocks contain a large amount of calcium carbonate which reacts with the sulfuric acid to create gypsum and gypsum flakes off easily.

Acid rain had adverse effect on vegetation. it results in poor germination of seeds, suppression of growth, leaf drop and reduction in production.

Measures to control Air Pollution

  • Greater use of activated carbon to cleanse the air of any possible toxins.
  • change in fuel technique such as use of low surface fuel.
  • use of electric utility, use of natural gas as a fuel.
  • use of biofiltration.
Government initiatives of Air Pollution: Following are government initiatives to control the air pollution

1. National Air Quality Monitoring Programme (NAQMP): 
Central pollution control board (CPCB) is executing a nationwide programme of ambient air quality monitoring known as national air quality monitoring programme. it is undertaken in india to determine status and trends of ambient air quality.

The objective of NAQMP are as follows
  • To determine statistics and trends of ambient air quality.
  • To ascertain whether the prescribed ambient air quality standards are violated.
  • To identify non-attainment cities.
  • To obtain the knowledge necessary for developing preventing and corrective measures.

2. National Ambient Air Quality Standards: The (NAAQS) was notified in 1982 and duly revised in 1994 are based on health criteria and land uses. The NAAQS have boon revisited and revised in november 2009 for 12 pollutants which include
(i) Lead
(ii) Nickel
(iii) Benzene
(iv) Ammonia
(v) Ozone
(vi) Benzopyren
(vii) Sulphur Dioxide
(viii) Nitrogen Dioxide
(ix) PM10
(x) PM 2.5
(xi) Arsenic
(xii) Carbon Monoxide

3. Air Prevention and Control of Pollution Act, 1981: it was enacted by the parliament in 1981 with an objective to prevent, control and abate air pollution. The decisions were taken at UN conference on the Human environment held in stockholm in june 1972.

India takes appropriate steps for preservation of the natural resources of the earth which among other things, include the preservation of the quality of air and control of air pollution.

Therefore, it is considered necessary to implement the decision aforesaid in so far as they relate to the preservation of the quality of air and control of air pollution.

In 1988, Air (PCP) Act, had been amended to include noise pollution under this act. before this, noise pollution was not included in any law related to environment pollution.

4. Air Quality Index: india launched its first air quality index in April, 2015. it aims to monitor the air quality in major cities across the country on the real time basis.

it is colour based index and shows the quality of air by different colours.
Remark                                        AQI                                                Colour Code
GOOD                                               0-50                                                Dark Green
Satisfactory                                      51-100                                              Light Green
Moderate                                         101-200                                                 Yellow
Poor                                                201-300                                                  Orange
Very Poor                                          301-400                                                     Red
Severe                                               401-500                                        Dark Red (Maroon)

The objective of air quality index are as follow
  • To inform public regarding overall status of air quality through a summation parameter that is easy to understand.
  • To inform citizens about associated health impacts of air pollution exposure.
  • To rank cities/town for prioritising action based on measure of air quality index.
  • To measure the emergences of pollution and to make remedial actions immediately.
5. Bharat Stage Emission Standards (BSES):They are emission standards instituted by the government of india to regulate the o/p of air pollutant from internal combustion engines and spark -ignition engines equipment, including motor vehicles. the standard are based on European regulation. 

since october 2010, bharat stage emission standard-111 (BS-111) norm have been enforced across the country. bharat stage iv emission have been enforced for entire country since apil,2017. in 2016,government of india has announced that country would skip the BS-V norms and adopt BS-VI norms by 2020. The petroleum ministry of india has decided on 15th nov 2017, to bring forward the date of BS-VI grade auto fuels in NCT of Delhi with effect from 1st april, 2018 instead 1st april,2020.

6. National Electric Mobility Mission Plan (NEMMP): Government of india launched the NEMMP-2020 IN 2013. IT aims to achieve national fuel security by promoting hybrid and electric vehicles in the country. government has launched the scheme namely faster adoption and manufacturing of hybrid and  electric vehicle (FAME India) under NEMMP-2020. This scheme will provide a major push for early adoption and market creation of both hybrid and electric technologies vehicles in the country.

Through these scheme, government allows hybrid and electric vehicles to become the first choice for the purchasers so that these vehicles can replace the conventional vehicles and thus, reduce liquid fuel consumption in the country from the automobile sector.

Note-SAFAR: SAFAR-Air is the first mobile application service in india to provide a current and advanced forecast for air quality. the application was developed by scientist at india institute of tropical meteorology (IITM), Pune.

It enable citizens to check their city's air quality in real time. the app provides current data and a forecast for air quality in the user's current location through a colour coed system.

2. Water Pollution: water pollution takes place when bodies of water like rivers, lakes or groundwater are contaminated with either chemicals or natural forms of pollution that harm wildlife and plants.

Source of Water-Pollution: source of water pollution can be classified into point and non-point

  • Point sources: It is directly attributable to once influence. here pollutants travel directly from source to water. they are easy to regulate.
  • Non-point sources: it is from various ill-defined and diffuse sources. they vary specially and temporally and are difficult to regulate.
The point and non point sources of water pollution include following wastes
  • Agricultural wastes: Fertilisers contain major plant nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium. excess fertilisers may reach the groundwater by leaching or may be mixed with surface water of rivers, lakes and ponds by runoff and drainage. other than fertilisers, pesticides, animal excreta such as dung, wastes from poultry farms, piggeries etc are major agricultural source of water pollution.
  • Industrial wastes: Industries often use valuable chemicals like solvents and heavy metals like lead in their processes. if water used in industries is not properly cleaned being before released,these chemicals can contaminate ecosystem.
  • Domestic Waste: Domestic sources include discharge from house, commercial and industrial establishments connected to public sewerage system. the sewerage contains human and animal excreta, food residues, etc.
Note-Hydrogen Sulfide: hydrogen sulphide (H2S) indicates the level of pollution of water. if there is no H2S produced the water is considered to be clear. if H2S level is produced and
  • Small in quantity: The water colour is changed to light black which indicated low level of pollution.
  • Medium in quantity: The water colour is changed to black which indicates moderate water pollution.
  • High in quantity: The water colour is changed to dark black which means the water is more polluted.

Types of water pollution and their effects: 

  • Marine Pollution: It can be defined as the introduction of substances to the marine environment directly or indirectly by man resulting in adverse effects like lowering the quality of sea water, obstruction of marine activities.
  • Thermal water pollution: when industrial plants use water to cool down machines and then pump that water back into the ecosystem, the chemical make up of the water is changed and this is known as thermal water pollution. it increases the water temperature therefore oxygen level decreases and new species can takeover.
  • Surface water pollution: surface water can be polluted by industrial and municipal discharges as well as alterations to the natural environment, which may cause run-off and can include human and animal waste.it may infect the human and animals very badly, and also causes spots in the water due to oxygen depletion.
  • Groundwater pollution: when chemicals presented day-by-day into the earth by industrial activities,then groundwater affected severely.
  • Generally, gorundwater is considered uncontaminated and thus, can be consumed directly. it is very harmful for the humans and thus may cause infecttion.

Controlling of water pollution

  • Reducing soil erosion or improving water treatment, attempt to stop contamination from entering natural water system through run off or seepage.
  • Clean water act or other such acts should be regulated.
  • Reducing the amount of sediment in water.
  • Utility companies have improved the controls in their treatment plants and fixed broken pipes etc.
  • Reducing the amount of sewage and chemical detergents released into water supplies.

Government Steps to Control Water Pollution

The following steps are taken by the government of india to reduce water pollution
  • Formulation of environmental regulations.
  • Promotion of cleaner production processes.
  • comprehensive amendments to various waste management rules including municipal solid waste, plastic waste, hazardous waste, bio-medical waste and electronic waste notified.
  • Notification of construction and demolition waste management rules.
  • Ban on burning of leaves, biomass, municipal solid waste.
  • Revision of existing environmental standards and formulation of new standards for prevention and control of pollution from industries.
  • Regular co-ordination meetings at official and ministerial level with delhi and other state government within the NCR.
  • Issuance of directions under section 5 of environment (protection) act, 1986 and under section 181 (1)(b) of water (prevention and control of pollution) act, 1974 and air (prevention and control of pollution) act, 1981.
  • Implementation of national river conservation plan for abatement of pollution in identified stretches of various rivers.
  • Preparation of action plan for sewage management and restoration of water quality in aquatic resources by state government.
  • installation of online continuous (24*7) monitoring devices by major industries.

Note- The water (prevention and control of pollution )act, 1974           

The act was enacted in 1974 to provide for the prevention and control of water pollution and for the maintaining or restoring of wholesomeness of water in the country. the act was amended in 1988.

under the act, government has power to restrict any unit and to take samples of effluents and get them analysed in central or state laboratories.

Government also set-up boards at enter and state level for prevention and control of water pollution and to promote cleanliness of the state.     

3. Noise Pollution: It may be defined as the state of discomfort and restlessness caused to human by unwanted high intensity sound known as noise

Sources of Noise Pollution: On an average, the sources of noise pollution are divided into the following two categories

(I) Natural Sources: it includes clouds thunder, hurricanes, tornados etc.
(11) Anthropogenic Sources: It can be further divided into three categories

(a) Industrial Unit:It includes sound from industrial machine.
(b) Means of transportation: It includes sound from different means of transportation like motorcycle etc.
(c) means of entertainment: it include sound generated in religious festivals, parties atc.

Effect of Noise Pollution

  • Human efficiency increases with noise reduction
  • sudden noise can cause abortion
  • Loud noise causes temporary or permanent deafness.
  • It weakens the edifice of buildings.

Control Of Noise Pollution

  • Apply insulation which can reduce the noise
  • Volume reduction can reduce the speed of sound.
  • Formation of green belt in areas of intense noise pollution through green muffler techniques.
4. Soil Pollution: soil pollution is a result of dumping garbage, waste and other toxins making the land contaminated or polluted.

Sources of Soil Pollution
  • Industrial Wastes: it includes chemicals such as mercury, lead,  cooper,zinc, cadmium, cyanides etc.
  • Agricultural Waste: It includes grass, leaves which when rotten cause soil pollution.
  • Nuclear Wastes: Radioactive elements from mining and nuclear power plants find their way into water and then into the soil
  • Human element: it includes littering and waste that is washed ashore from boats, oil rigs and sewage outlet. another factor contributing this type of pollution is acid rain.

Effects of Soil Pollution

  • it leaves behind the unsightly piles of garbage.
  • this can lead to the loss of some type of plants and animal life as well as create long-term health problem such as cancer in humans.
  • plants may fail to grow,robbing the ecosystem of a food source for animals.
Control of Soil Pollution: some of the measures to control soil pollution are as follows
  • Much of our waste can be recycled or incinerated to lessen pollutants.
  • pre-determined holes are used to dump mining waste, which comes from mining.
  • Rules and regulation regarding wastes should be addressed and enforced.
Note-Acidification: it is the process of becoming an acid or the act of making something become an acid. the term acidification can be used in mainly two important matter that is soil and water.

soil acidification: It occurs naturally very slowly as soil is weathered, but this process is accelerated by productive agriculture. soil acidification occurs because the concentration of hydrogen ions in the soil increases. ammonium based fertilisers are major contributors to soils acidification, especially if the nitrogen is reached rather than taken up by plants.

ocean acidification: It occurs when carbon dioxide gas (CO2) is absorbed by the ocean and react with sea water to produce acid. it is occurred mainly as a result of human activities such as burning fossil fuels.
as CO2 is absorbed, it reacts with the water to form carbonic acid. this leads to the release of hydrogen ions-charged particles that are derived from the hydrogen in the water. the greater the hydrogen ion concentration, the more acidic the substance is.

5. Waste Pollution: Waste comes in many different forms and may be categorised in a variety of ways.

1. Solid Waste: It includes, radioactive waste pollution, plastic waste pollution, paper, metal, bottles, agricultural wastes and so on. some of these are discussed below

1. Radioactive Waste Pollution

Radioactive pollution is the depletion of or presence of radioactive substances on surface or within solids, liquids or gases where their presence is unintended or undesirable.

radioactive contamination or pollution presents a hazard because of the radioactive decay of the contaminants, which emit harmful ionising radiation such as alpha particles or beta particles, gama rays or neutrons.

Sources of Radioactive waste pollution

Radioactive contamination cab be due to
  • release of radioactive gases, liquid or particles.
  • an inevitable result of certain processes, such as the release of radioactive xenon in nuclear fuel reprocessing 
  • nuclear fallout
Effects of Radioactive Waste Pollution
  • Radioactive pollution affects the person, who receives high doses of radiation could increase the chances of cancer and also affects the skin of human body.
  • It causes an acute radiation syndrome.
  • following an atmospheric nuclear weapons discharge or a nuclear reactor containment breach, the air, soil,people, plants and animals in the vicinity will become contaminated by nuclear fuel and fission products.
  • A spilled vial of radioactive material like uranyl nitrate may contaminate the ground.
  • Cases of widespread radioactive include the bikini Atoll, the Rocky flats plant in colorado, the fukushima daiichi nuclear disaster, the chernobyl disaster and the area around the Mayak Facility in Russia.
Control and Monitoring of Radioactive waste pollution
  • Make a concrete surface for free radioactive contamination and disposed it.
  • Access to radioactive areas, a variety of techniques such as barriers, changes of clothing and footwears are to be applied.
  • use of contamination control products such as fixatives strippable coatings, and decontamination gels.
  • Emphasise on containment.
Plastic Waste Pollution: It is the accumulation of plastic objects such as plastic bottles and so on. plastic are not expensive and these are durable, as a result it is used in large quantity. moreover, the chemical structure of most plastics renders them resistant to many natural processes of degradation and as a result they are slow to degrade. Together two factors have led to a high prominence of plastic pollution in the environment.

Effects of Plastic Waste Pollution: Plastic pollution affects in many ways
  • It releases harmful chemical into surrounding soil, which can then deep into groundwater or other surrounding water sources. this can cause serious harm to the species that drink water as well as humans.
  • Breakdown of plastic by microorganism release a heavy amount of methane which contributes significantly to global warming.
  • Toxic chemical such as a Bisphenol A and polystyrene pollute the oceans and plankton, fish and ultimately the human race through food chain, cause an increase in Cancer, immune disorder and birth defects.
Control and Measurement of Plastic Waste Pollution
  • To promote plastic recycling
  • To use biodegradable materials instant of plastics.
  • decrease the use of plastics in medical equipment.
2. Liquid Waste: it can be define as such liquids as wastewater, fats, oils or grease (FOG), used oils,liquids,solids,gases,or sludge and hazardous household liquids. these liquids are hazardous or potentially harmful to human health and the environment.

Sources of Liquid Waste
  • Household wastewater: wastewater from household contains many pollutants wihch are hazardous for human as well as environment.
  • Industrial wastewater: water is used in industries for cooling and cleaning purpose. this water contains huge amount of chemicals which discharge unto water bodies and make them dirty.
  • Inorganic and organic wastewater
  • Oil and water mixtures.
Effects of Liquid Waste Pollution
  • The wastewater and other liquid waste badly affect water bodies, land and our environment. This ultimately affects human health.
3. Biomedical Waste: Biomedical waste is an infectious material may cause serious danger to human health. it may be solid or liquid. it is generated from biological and medical sources and activities, such as the diagnosis, prevention, or treatment of diseases in hospitals, clinics, funeral homes and so on.

Sources of Biomedical Waste: Discarded blood, sharps, unwanted microbiological cultures and stocks, identifiable body parts, other human or animal tissues, used bandages and dressings, discarded gloves, other medical supplies that may have been in contact with blood and body fluids, and laboratory waste etc.

Waste sharps include potentially contaminated used (and unused discarded) needles, scalpels, lancets and other devices capable of penetrating skin.

Biomedical waste management

  • Proper labeling of bins which are especially used for these types of wastes.
  • Segregation
  • Collection
  • Storage
  • The waste should be transported for treatment.
4. Hazardous Waste: It is waste that has potential threats to human health and the environment
"Any solid waste other than radioactive waste, which by reasons of physical or chemical or reactive or toxic, explosive, corrosive or other characteristics causing danger or likely to cause danger to health or environment whether alone or when coming in contact with other waste of environment".

Sources of Hazardous Waste
  1. Batteries
  2. Pesticides
  3. Equipment Containing mercury
  4. lamp Containing mercury
  5. paints and solvent
  6. automotive waste (used motor oil, antifreeze)
  7. Pesticides(insecticides, herbicides, fungicides)
  8. mercury-containing waste (thermometers, switches, fluorescent lighting etc.)
  9. electronics (computers, televisions, cell phones)
  10. Aerosols/propane cylinders
  11. Caustics/Cleaning agents
  12. Refrigerant-containing appliances
  13. some special batteries (e.g. lithium, nickel cadmium or button cell batteries)
  14. Ammunition
Disposal option for management of hazardous waste
Types of waste                                                                                                      Disposal
Cyanide bearing                                                                                                   Sludge for land-fill
Heavy metal bearing                                                                                                land-fill
non-halogenated or halogenated hydrocarbon including solvent-                   Thermal treatment &                                                                                                                                      ash for land fill
From paint, pigment, glue, varnish, in industry                                           Thermal treatment &                                                                                                                                      ash for land fill
From dyes and intermediate containing inorganics                                                 land-fill
From dyes and intermediate containing organics                                     Thermal treatment &                                                                                                                                      ash for land fill
Waste oil and emulations                                        sludge for incineration and then ash for land-fill
Tarry waste and residues from refining, cracking                                     Thermal treatment &                                                                                                                                      ash for land fill
Sludge from treatment of plants                                                                        land fill
Phenols                                                                                                       sludge for land-fill
Asbestos                                                                                                land-fill
Wastes and residues from pesticides                                               Thermal treatment &                                                                                                                                      ash for land fill
Acid/alkali slurry                                                                        sludge for land-fill
off-spec products                                                                    ash and sludge for land-fill
Discarded containers and liners                         Containers for land-fill and liners for incineration

5. E-WASTE (Electronic waste): It is a discarded electrical or electronic devices. in other words, used electronics which are destined for reuse, resale, salvage, recycling, or disposal are considered as e-waste.

Sources of e-waste
  • waste generated from the product used for data processing such as computers, computer device like monitor, speakers, keyboards, printers, etc.
  • electronic devices used for entertainment like TV,DVDs and CD players.
  • Equipment or devices used for communication like phones, landline pones, fax etc
  • Household equipment like vacuum cleaner, washing machines, air conditioners etc.
  • audio-visual components such as VCRs stereo equipment.
Effects of e-waste: The process of dismantling and disposing of electronic waste in developing countries led to a no. of environmental impacts
  • Liquid and atmospheric release end up in bodies of water, groundwater,soil and air therefore causes very harmful infection.
  • levels of carcinogens in ponds, rice paddies, etc exceeded.
  • Heavy metal found in road dust which causes skin cancer, serious illness etc.
  • prenatal exposure to e-waste causes several adverse birth outcomes such as still birth, low birth weight etc.
e-waste control: following are the controlling measures of e-waste

  • The first effort made to control e-waste was in 1992 under Basel Convention.under this, there is a provision of recycling of 60% e-waste in developed countries.
  • United nation has started a programme to contain e-waste problem named as solving e-waste problem.the effort have been made to reduce to piling of e-waste.
  • union ministry of environment, forest and climate change on 23rd march,2016,notified the e-waste management rules, 2016. the new set of rules will supersede the e-waste (management and handling) rules, 2011 and will pave the way for more transparent and environment-friendly management of e-waste.1`
  • The annual report of implementation of these rules has to be submitted to ministry of environment.
Note-e-waste micro factory: In april 2018, an indian origin scientist has developed world's first microfactory that can transform the components of electronic waste items into valuable materials for reuse.

5. Thermal Pollution:It is the degradation of water quality by any process that changes ambient water temperature.

Sources of thermal pollution
  • A common source of thermal pollution is the use of water as a coolant by power plants and industrial manufactures.
  • Municipal sewage also contributes to thermal pollution.
Effects of thermal pollution
  • it raises the temperature of water bodies, consequently oxygen decreases, which leads to destruction of acquatic life.
  • The activity of biological life is more at higher temperature and hence, as temperature of water rises, there is more demand for dissolved oxygen
  • increase in BOD
Control and monitoring of thermal pollution
  • To make or built cooling ponds, cooling power
  • to use the cogeneration process
  • to built bioretention system and infiltration basis.


















                                                                                                           




























































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