UGC NTA NET Exam Preparation: Development and Environment | Unit-9 | Part-2 |

 UGC NTA NET Exam Preparation: Development and Environment | Unit-9 | Part-2 |


Environment and Development are interrelated which cannot be separated from each other. one cannot think of development without considering the environment. Development is a continuous and constant process which is carried out for the benefits of the inhabitants and boost economy of nations. it is equally important for human beings as the environment.

The environment refers to air, water and land and the interrelationship of all these factors with human beings. Environment and development cannot go against each other. if development is carried out without considering the environment, it may have a negative impact on te environment. This, in turn, will cause harmful effects on the inhabitants. Thus if we want to enjoy the benefits of development, conservation of the environment is necessary.

Millennium Development Goals (MDGs): 

In September 2000, following the millennium summit of united nations, millennium goals were set to reduce extreme poverty, hunger, disease, literacy, environmental degradation, and discrimination against women through the united nations millennium declaration. The world leaders came together at the united nations headquarters in new York to adopt this declaration in the year 2000. These were the time bound targets with a deadline of 2015. These goals have become known as the Millennium development goals (MDGs)

The 8 MDGs are

1. To eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
2. To achieve universal primary education
3. To promote gender equality and empower women
4. To reduce child mortality
5. To improve maternal health
6. To combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases
7. To ensure environmental sustainability and
8. To develop a Global partnership for development
But, later it was found that progress towards the goals was uneven thus,in 2016, MDGs was replaced by the sustainable development goals (SDGs).

Sustainable Development Goals (MDGs): 

The sustainable development has been derived from Brundtland's our common future, 1987 report of the world commission on environment and development. "sustainable development is the development that meets the need of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs".

The objectives of SD are as follows:
  • Environmental friendly patterns of activity.
  • Energy efficiency
  • conservation of natural and man-made resources.
  • provision of buildings and area with lasting quality and character. This relates to design quality to high standards of comfort and amenity, safety and convenience.
  • Development of production opportunities.
one of the main outcome of the Rio+20 conference was the agreement by member states to launch a process to develop a set of SDGs, which will build upon the MDG and converge with the post 2015 development

It was decided to establish an "inclusive and transparent inter-governmental process open to all stakeholders, with a view to developing global SDG to be agreed by the General Assembly".

There were 17 proposed SDG goals
  1. End poverty in all its forms everywhere.
  2. End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture.
  3. Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages.
  4. Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all.
  5. Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls.
  6. Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all.
  7. Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all.
  8. Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all.
  9. Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialisation and foster innovation.
  10. Reduce inequality within and among countries.
  11. Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable.
  12. Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns.
  13. Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impact
  14. Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development.
  15. protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss.
  16. promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels.
  17. Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalise the global partnership for sustainable development.




















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