UGC NTA NET Exam Preparation:Education System in India| Unit-10|HE part-1|

 UGC NTA NET Exam Preparation:Education System in India| Unit-10|HE part-1|


higher education is the final stage of formal learning that occurs after completion of secondary eduction.it contributes to the national development through dissemination of specialised knowledge and skills. it is therefore, necessary for optimum utilisation of human resources.

india's higher education system is the third largest in the world (next to china and USA). india's HE sector has witnessed a tremendous increase in no. of universities, colleges since independence. the right to education act 2009 which stipulates compulsory and free. education to all children within the age groups of 6-14 years, has brought about a revolution in the education system of the country with statistics revealing a staggering enrolment in school.

The involvement of private sector in GE has resulted drastic change. This has accelerated the establishment of institutes and making india as a home to one of the largest no. of HE institutions in the world.

Education System In India: The history of HE of india can be understood in the following periods which are mentioned below:

Education in Ancient Period: education in india dates back to its early civilisation where teaching and learning processes revolved around the Gurukul system. This system was based on residential concept wherein the student were educated under the tutorship of a teacher in different areas of religion and philosophy.

Religion was the basis of education as people had a belief that through religious education they would attain salvation.
The main source of teaching in the ancient education was vedic literature which represented the mst important and intrinsic part of life of the indian people. in vedic period, teacher or guru used to give knowledge to their pupil on the basis of vedic literature which consisted of 8 different froms such as four vedas, 6 vedangas. four upavedas, 4 brahmanas, one hundred and 8 upanishads, 6 system of philosophy, Bhagwat gita and threee smritis. it is also known as vedic system of edcttaion in which teacher occupied a vital position as compared to his disciples. sanskrit formed the basis of delivering vedic education. student were taught in the form of shruti (listening) and smriti (Memorising), since it was believed that this method ensured the preservation of knowledge across generations to follow.

During vedic period, pupil used to go to gurukuls which were the formal institutions of learning and reside there in order to gain education. an important objective of ancient educational system was to preserve and transmit ancient indian culture. in gurukul system of education majority of the pupils were boys or male, but there was also a provision for the girl's education, but the no. of schools or gurukul which were exclusively for girls were very few in this period. This system of education was free from the interference of the any high authority. these gurukuls received grants from public in the form of vidyadana (donation), these grants were used to provide free education to all poor students.

Modern concept of university style education centres were established around 6th century BC at nalanda and takshila. other ancient HE institutions were Odantapuri and Jagaddala which acquired an international reputation in ancient india. The study of vedas, science, medicine and surgery, archery and agriculture were the main subjects in the curriculum at these institutions.

In the seventh century BC banaras become one of the most important centres of education in eastern india that provided the traditional vedic education among the students. even today banaras hindu university is a prominent centre of learning.

Education in Medieval Period

During this period many dynasties were emerged like palas, senas, pratiharas, rashtrakutas and cholas and promoted learning, arts and literature greatly. during the reign of palas the famous nalanda university was brought back to its former order (which was destroyed by Huns in 455 AD) and vikramshila univrsity came into existence. it was the time when customs, cultures and traditions of Arab and central Asian region mingled with those of the indian inhabitants. with the advent of Mahmud of Ghazni in A.D. 1001, Muhammad Ghauri in A.D. 1175, the educational institutions of the hindu and the buddhist religion were destroyed.

Arabic and persian got prominence and muslim education system came into existence. it was the time when urdu popularised by the delhi sultanate. institutes of muslim education were attached to masjids and the education system was based on islamic principles, law and social convention. During the sultanate and the mughal rule, education received a great patronage from the state. the muslim rulers established many Maqtabas, Madrassahs and Libraries etc, to impart education to all. one of the most important developments during the period of muslim in the field of education was the vocational and technical education.

The mughal rulers established many residential colleges for postgraduate studies in different subjects and advanced studied were made in various branches in learning like mathematics, geometry, astronomy, physics, philosophy, history, grammer and literature etc. but after the death of aurangzeb, the mughal empire and the system of education based on religion came to an end.


Education in Modern Period: The major changes in the traditional style of higher education were brought by the europeans starting from 1600 AD. the british were successfully controller much part of india by 1800 AD under East india company and established formal system of HE which continue till date.

The development of HE under british rule can be unerstood through following points
  • Lord Macaulay had been responsible in making english as the langyuage of instruction across the education system in india.
  • the first british style universities were established in calcutta (kolkata), bombay(mumbai) and madras (chennai) in the year 1857. these learning centres were focused on generating english speaking working class for the british administrative services.
  • Modern science and engineering education flourished in india by 1909 when the indian institute of science was established by tata with focus on research in science and engineering.
  • The british model of university system continued to expand across india leading to growing no. of highe learning centers by 1947.

Higher Education in India: Higher education deals with the tertiary level of education in india. undergraduate colleges, post-graduate colleges, universities and centres of advanced studied come under the scope of HE.

Objectives of HE: 

  • Wisdom and knowledge: Education is both a training of minds and training of souls. it should give both knowledge and wisdom. no amount of factual information would take ordinarily into educated men unless something is awakened in them. therefore, there should be inculcation of wisdom and knowledge.
  • Aim of the social order: education system in india must find its guiding principle in the aims of the social order for which it prepares. unless we preserve the value of democracy, justice, liberty, equality and fraternity, we cannot preserve our freedom.
  • Higher values of life: the greatness of a country does not depend on the extent of its territory, the length of its comm. or the amount of its wealth, but on the love for higher values of life. we must develop thought for the poor and sufferings, regards and respect for women, faith in brotherhood, regardless of race, colour, religion etc.
  • Training for leadership: one of the important objectives of HE is the training for leadership in the professional and public life. it is the function of universities to train men and women for wise leadership.

Importance and Necessity of HE: HE is important from various points of view these are:

  • its field of activity is so wide that all activities and experiences are embraced in its sphere of work.
  • It infuses in the child a spirit of dynamic citizenship which pulls him on and in the service of his/her nation, keeping into consideration the international understanding and well-being of humanity as a whole.
  • it aims at designing technlogies that result in new products and supplying advanced technology for use.
  • it develops skills among students which help to develop their nation.







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